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Task 1. 2
1.1 Apply relevant theories of communication to health and social care context 2
1.2 Use communication skills in a health and social care contents. 3
1.3 Review methods of dealing with inappropriate interpersonal communication between individuals in health and social care settings. 4
1.4 Analyze the use of strategies to support users of health and social care services with specific communication needs. 5
Task 2. 6
2.1 Explain how the communication process is influenced by values and cultural factors. 6
2.2 Explain how legislation, charters and codes of practice impact on the communication process in health and social care. 7
2.3 Analyze the effectiveness of organizational systems and policies in promoting good practice in communication. 7
2.4 Suggest ways of improving the communication process in a health and social care setting. 8
1.1 Apply relevant theories of communication to health and social care context
Communication can be described as the process of passing information between people and organization. There are different types of communication methods which are used in Health and Social Care sector (Stavans, 2010). The main methods of communication which can be used in the social and health care sector are Verbal, Non-verbal, Written and Listening.
Humanistic learning theory makes a focus on both the cognitive and affective qualities. This theory deals with learning of self-development and help in achieving full potential. This theory is considered to be the best when it is related to the learner. Autonomy and self-determination are very important. After taking account of the auditory impairment of the client and privacy needs, application of humanistic theory can be successful and it can be done through empathic approach (Brown, Crawford and Carter, 2006). The problem of language and technical difficulties can be overcome by proper assistance and imparting information. This will make the client more empowered and it will lead to self-reliance.
Figure.1: Behaviorist theory
Source: (Tech for instruction fall 08, 2015)
Another theory which can be put to use is behaviorist theory. As per behaviorist theory, the behavior of a person depends on the environmental interaction. Bastable in the behaviorist school of thought put forward the fact that response can be traced to the effect of stimulus. Behaviorists focus on the responses and then influence the environment to bring the required changes. In order to change the attitude of a person, a behaviorist would either change the stimulus condition in the environment or alter what happens after a response takes place.
An important communication theory to be focused on is the Johari Window model. This communication helps in understanding the exact meaning of self-disclosure and encourages people to provide and accept feedback (Brown, Crawford and Carter, 2006). It helps to build trust with other individuals and then help in receiving the feedback. Johari Window has Open Area, Blind Area, Hidden Area and the Unknown Area.
Open Area include thing that are known to everybody. With regard to health and social care when communication with a patient with a patient it is very essential that the care professional that is delivering the care knows who they are delivering the care to. The Blind Area includes the simple and deeper issues that are not known to everybody. The Hidden Area represents the thing which others don’t know. The Unknown Area includes feeling, capabilities, talents etc. Teaching and providing necessary information is required to be made (Brown, Crawford and Carter, 2006). Application of all the above mentioned theory will involve observing the response of the client in accordance with defense mechanism like reaction formation, repression, rationalization, etc. Appropriate inter personal skill is needed to effectively handle each behavior and a healthy client-worker relationship.
1.2 Use communication skills in a health and social care contents.
The different types of communication skill which can be used in the health and social care are talking, listening, use of non verbal messages, deriving idea about the cultural differences, effective delivering of questions and understanding the cycle of communication. It is very essential to cover the foundation before handling the mode of communication. All these communication techniques will help in developing the communication skill (Moss and Moss, 2012). It is important to develop these techniques in health and social care as it helps to have continuous flow of communication. Use of these techniques will allow social interaction and thereby make the other level of communication techniques work much easily in the health and social care.
While using the verbal communication skill it is important to be conscious while choosing words. Non-verbal communication skill deals with what a person is feeling than what is actually said. These are the two most important mode of communication which is required to be developed with efficient skill as they are widely used in health and social care. Cultural differences vary so much that it becomes difficult to make the right interpretation. For this reason it is important to develop these two modes of communication skill (Moss and Moss, 2012). Having efficient skill in the two process will help in the process of validation by asking the client in accordance as what the observant had seen. It is also important to avoid confusion and misunderstanding to derive correct interpretation. Listening is also an essential skill of communication. Properly listening to the needs and the queries of the customers will lead to understand everything and catty out the communication in proper way. While talking proper selection of words should be made. While choosing the correct words it is important to consider seven things which are very vital for developing communication skill. These seven considerations are simplicity, brevity, clarity, pace and intonation, adaptability and humor (Moss and Moss, 2012). All the above mentioned skills are essential in communication.
1.3 Review methods of dealing with inappropriate interpersonal communication between individuals in health and social care settings.
Dealing with inappropriate interpersonal communication between individuals impose important skill in managing the people. Concentrating is not only regarded as a process of dealing with the inappropriate behavior but also the therapeutic communication process is used to prevent all kinds of communication behavior. Furthermore, other concerns made by the client must also be listened properly.
One main barrier to good communication in health and social care setting is the Psychological barriers. This is specially the case with the psychological patients. In order to overcome these barriers in health and social care it is important to provide reassurance to patients by using calming phases (Le Poire and Dailey, 2006). The patient should be kept in a familiar area where he will be able to calm himself. In case the patient do not become normal then one should realize that there is still something which is causing agitation in the patients and hence further investigation is required.
Another barrier is the language. In order to solve the problem of language with the patients, the management of health and social care should use interpreter. This can also be overcome by delivering proper training to the staffs about non-verbal communication such as sign language or creating picture.
The physical environment like body language, noise, vision etc. also acts as a barrier to the communication system (Le Poire and Dailey, 2006). Al these physical barriers can be overcome by developing a room in the hospital which will have perfect lighting, no noise and disturbance. All kinds of communication barrier will affect the emotion and this may change the outlook of the patient to him or herself. So it is important to overcome all kinds of communication barriers.
1.4 Analyze the use of strategies to support users of health and social care services with specific communication needs
Good Communication system is very essential in health and social care. In order to address the problems of the disabled patients the hospitals should develop the important strategies. It is the duty of the health and social care professionals to help the disabled persons to overcome all kinds of problems in communication(Harlow and Webb, 2003). This is gained by assisting the service users with strategies to encounter the communication problems. The two strategies that can be used in the process are:
Figure.1: Braille Alphabet
Source: (Fldeafblind, 2015)
Braille is used by the blind people or partially sighted people. It is designed to be read by finger tips instead if using eyes. The major benefit of using Braille is that it can be self-taught. It enables the blind person to work according to their own time table. The leaflets and the posters displayed around the hospitals can be produced in Braille(Harlow and Webb, 2003). Communication with the blind patients can be made easier by paying attention before beginning to communicate with the patients. It can be done by reassuring the patient. The blind person should be made feel comfortable and secure in the environment.
Sign language can be defined as the visual way of communicating to the people who are unable to hear. The sign language is used in health and social care to enable the patients clearly understands procedures and treatment that they are going to receive. This is technique which is considered to be the best and fastest way communicating information to those who are visually impaired.
In today’s world, there are several methods that help in communication. The communication methods mainly include the meetings, face to face conversation, memos, media methods and airplanes, telegraphs and e-mail etc. the methods that have been discussed above can be grouped in two methods namely electronic method and manual method.
The initial importance goes to the message, the second one is the effectiveness and the last depends on the type of feedback received. The methods of communication are mainly influenced by the various factors such as individual values, ability and the culture. In this case, values are considered as the capability of a person to understand the difference between right or wrong (Kim, 2004). But on the other hand the factors can also lead to miscommunication. It has been observed that the values may be influential. For example if a supervisors decides to have a meeting with the subordinates for minor concerns as the supervisor can think that it would then become impersonal. In this case if he passes a memo and it may also happen that the co-workers of the supervisor may ask him or her any question regarding the poor performance of the use of the communication methods because the meeting on the other hand can lead to the wastage of time and effort as well on the part of the employees. The other factor is the culture which is established in the environment where a person grows or develops.
In recent days, the use of new innovated communication skills is very important and they are used by many in this technologically developed world. For example if a general manager who works in a company since several years and if he is ignorant of the development and remains unbothered to learn the basics of the computer, internet and other electronic devices and this may lead to relay the notices on bulletins boards rather than relaying the notices on emails despite of knowing that the employees and his other co-workers are familiar to the use of email etc (Rayudu, 2010). In addition to this the state of mind, physical attributes and also high stress level can impact the person’s ability to face the members of the organization at the time of the meeting as they might lose their concentration or they can get distracted from the meeting.
2.2 Explain how legislation, charters and codes of practice impact on the communication process in health and social care.
In nations laws are generally implemented in order to make the lives of the people more peaceful. Discrimination mainly takes place on the grounds of a person’s social class, disability, sexuality etc. which in turn can cause stress among the people. In addition to this discriminatory actions can also lead to the hamper of a person which can be either physically or mentally or both. It is very crucial for the health care practitioners to avoid circumstances of discrimination from the workplace as this leads to the prevention of the service user from gaining proper support that are required by them in order to maintain their health and well- being (Teufel et al., 2008). In order to provide good and efficient services to the service users it is very important for the health care workers to undertake the anti- discrimination policies and procedures as well on their work as this policies and procedures helps them to work properly in their workplace and provide suitable support to the service users. In health and social care setting the data protection act 1998 is one of the most important legislation. As per this act the information of the service user cannot be given to the third party without the service user’s permission. It is very crucial for the health care practitioners to keep the details of the service user confidential. In the year 1990, the essential principles were established for the people who are working in the organization. Development and promotion of equality is considered to be the most important aspect of principles of care. The health care practitioners may be from various backgrounds but they are required to be treated equally in the workplace.
2.3 Analyze the effectiveness of organizational systems and policies in promoting good practice in communication
The organizations that are mainly based on the health and social care, there are certain policies that are directly interconnected with the communication. It has been observed that effective communication system helps in maintain a better relationship with the customers thereby providing them with suitable services that are required by the customers. A well developed communication also helps organization to maintain better relationship with other health care partners too. As per the Data protection act 1998, the health care organizations must keep information of the service user confidential. Again the workers have to make a document of the tasks that they have been allotted to and what they perform relating to any other concerns in the health care record book (Teufel et al., 2008). The health care plan is developed for every service user which includes the necessary details about the service user, the required support and the service user’s condition.
The code of practice is considered to be the set of statements which states that all the health care professionals are required to hold a particular standard. This in turn helps to maintain the professionalism of the health care workers (Stavans, 2010). The ICT or the information and communication technology are generally used in health and social care setting. In the health and social care setting, the information like the details of the service user, policies and procedures, health care plans are stored in it. This in turn helps the communication and the service to be effective and efficient that is provided in the health and social care and the email is also been used for this purposes.
As the communication skills are considered to be the most important skill that is required by the healthcare practitioners in order to provide better services. So for this reason it is very important to develop the communication process in health and social care as poorly built communication may affect the working of the organization. In addition to this knowledge of English must be provided to the care workers which are another crucial factor that has to be kept in mind. However, lack of English knowledge can lead to poor communication of the care workers with the service users. In order to reduce this problem it is very essential to provide suitable support as well as resources that can develop the communication skill (Thomas, 2006). In Health and social care purposes the information and communication technology (ICT) is usually used. Those who deal with ICT in the organization must be provided with proper and suitable training that would help them to develop their skills. The health care practitioners such as the junior coordinators, senior managers generally deal with the ICT. When for the first time an individual joins the organization he or she is initially provided with suitable training. The training generally involves the grounds like communication, moving and handling infection control. The health care workers must be well educated and they must have qualifications such as NVQ3 as this helps them to acquire broader knowledge regarding health care (D’Agostino and Bylund, 2013). Efficient knowledge leads to good results in the future within the sector.
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