Determinants of Academic performance for international students in UK

Determinants of Academic performance for international students in UK

 

Abstract

Academic performance for the international students pursuing their education in UK should be evaluated in order to understand the factors responsible for overall academic achievement of these students. Present exploratory research makes use of both primary as well as secondary data research methods in order to find out variables which are responsible for the academic performance of students. Secondary research in the present context would be done through literature review and primary research would be accomplished through questionnaire and taking response from desired set of respondents. Multiple regression technique would be used in the present research context in order to analyze the data collected through primary research methods. A sample size of 60 students would be taken in order to carry out the research. From the research it has been highlighted that six factors of prime importance in predicting value of academic performance for a student would include academic integration, social integration, social support, social network, social life and financial support. It is recommended to enhance these factors among students of international origin in order to improve upon their academic performance.

 images (19) images (18) images (17) images (16) images (15) 12 11

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table of Contents

1.0 Introduction. 4

2.0 Research aim and research questions. 5

3.0 Literature review.. 6

3.1 Student learning preferences and student performance. 6

3.2 Financial support and student performance. 7

3.3 Social and academic integration. 8

3.4 Social life. 9

3.5 Social network of students. 10

3.6 Social support by family and friends. 11

4.0 Methodology. 12

5.0 Findings. 15

5.1 Secondary research. 15

5.2 Primary research. 17

6.0 Interpretation and analysis. 23

Conclusion and recommendations. 24

Appendix. 26

Reference. 33

 

 

 

 

1.0 Introduction

Academic performance of international students has come under spotlight in UK due to the reasons of increasing failure rate in the various universities of the country for the foreign students. The major impact of failure rate is in terms of increasing cost for the students in order to accomplish the course, lower intake of international students from UK’s universities due to downgrading quality of students and question mark imposed on the teaching style for these universities which defames their name in quality education around the world. In order to control the failure rate among various courses and universities in UK it is important that underlying factors should be identified (Van, 2003). Identification of these factors would help the academicians to understand the relationship of these factors with the failure rate among the international students and accordingly suitable strategy for the international students can be deployed in order to enhance passing rate among these students. It is important to understand the factors which are highly relevant for the failure rate of international students so that a comprehensive analysis of relevant factors can be done and extra factors can be eliminated from the analysis.

The present project provides an exploratory research in order to understand the factors affecting performance of international students in UK. With the help of exploratory research factors affecting performance would be explored and a statistical analysis through multiple regression technique would be done so as to understand the relevance and impact of each factor identified on the academic performance. Present study would evaluate the relationship of selected factors such as the academic integration, social network of students, social support from friends and family, social life, financial support and social integration on dependent factor which is performance of international students in UK. The present formal study would help in revealing the important factors responsible for student’s performance. The findings of present study would be important for the students as well as academicians in UK in order to evaluate the performance of international students for the various courses (Ward & Kennedy, 1993). Present study would be conducted by first exploring the literature review, collecting primary data with the help of questionnaire, carrying out analysis through multiple regression technique and finally presenting the findings of current project into suitable form so as to make recommendations on important factors responsible for the performance of international students in UK.

2.0 Research aim and research questions

Aim of the present exploratory research is to develop and identify factors responsible for academic performance of international students in UK. Below are some of the major research questions which would be addressed:

  1. To identify important factors which are responsible for variation in academic performance of international students in UK
  2. To determine the relationship between independent factors and student’s academic performance for international students studying in UK
  3. To recommend possible ways to enhance student performance for international students

3.0 Literature review

In the context of performance of students pertaining to particular university and courses several studies have been conducted which provides insight on important responsible factors. Their findings highlight numerous variables such as efforts made by students, social integration, academic integration, financial support and social life of the students as important indicators of the performance (Asmar, 2005). The major utility of these studies conducted to identify factors for student performance lies in the fact that corrective action needs to be adopted in order to enhance student performance especially for the public funded institutes. Higher focus should be towards the public funded institutes because of the reason that private institutes are having proper mechanism in place so as to identify student performance indicators and timely action is being taken in order to improve on that. Recent economic downturn in global economy points towards the requirement of efficient utilization and allocation of the resources so as to yield better results. There has been considerable amount of debate on the performance indicators responsible for international students in UK (Attewell et al, 2006).

 

3.1 Student learning preferences and student performance

Student learning preferences has been highlighted as an important factor in various researches focusing on the academic performance improvement where in a good match between the learning preference of the students and teaching style of the academicians would enhance the student performance. Learning preference can be said as the natural habitual and preferred way of collecting information by an individual. Hence each individual would be having difference preference in terms of effective method which can be used for teaching them and it depends upon the teacher that which method is being used in order to provide knowledge to students (Tempelaar et al, 2006).

From early time it is a known fact that student’s learning preferences does change a great deal based on the style used by teachers in order to teach the students. For example some teachers would teach through words while other may prefer to teach through pictorial representations. Depending upon the student’s learning style words method for teaching or pictorial method of teaching would create a positive impact on the student’s performance (Severiens & Wolff, 2008). There are basically four learning preferences identified for the students in general context which are given as below:

  • Aural learning: Aural learners would be students who would like to sit back at ease and would love to learn the lectures given by teacher without making much of notes. Further these students may prefer to record the lecture delivered at class so that later on the same lecture can be revised through recording. These students would be having books and other source of information through which they would gain the required information after going to their home.
  • Kinesthetic learners: These students can’t sit back and listen to the teacher in class and would normally like to fiddle with the things. These students would be actively involved in the learning process at class and would seek benefits of the active learning process used by teachers in classroom (Ward et al, 1998). The focus of these students would be more towards learning through engagement.
  • Read/write learners: These students would prefer to read the information contained in book and other sources through themselves. These students would focus on making lots of notes and would be asking for access to the different resources of information with handouts and given readings pertaining to the particular subject (Wilcox et al, 2005).
  • Visual learners: Visual learners would be the students who like to learn from white boards, pictures, colors and graphics etc. These students would be highly creative in nature and would make use of the different color diagrams in their notebook so as to remember particular piece of knowledge. A teacher needs to be highly creative and make use of the visual information tool so as to match with the style of these students.

3.2 Financial support and student performance

Financial support is an important indicator of the student’s performance for the various students studying in UK from national and international origin. A student having sufficient financial resources would be more inclined towards academic activity without bothering about the fulfillment of the financial needs in order to make payment for the tuition fee (Tempelaar et al, 2011). Students from the international origins would normally make payment arrangement in advance before starting the course but the financial arrangements made by the students would impact their academic performance. A student who have availed education loan in order to make payment for their tuition fee would be more concerned about repayment of their debt obligation from time to time and would like to join some part time job so that his day to day expenses and some part of the loan can be repaid along with the education.

Also students who are having adequate financial resources would be able to make arrangement for the additional information resources, study equipments and taking part in the extra certifications in order to enhance their knowledge and skill set. For example a student having sufficient financial resources can gain access of the online educational databases, test series courses and online certification for the particular course from where he/she can gain additional knowledge and certification which would have positive impact on the student performance. Similarly students having adequate financial resources can purchase their own laptops and other technological devices which are important in order to gain knowledge and would be helpful for enhancing academic performance of the students as well. Also students who do not have financial support would be looking for universities which are having low tuition fee despite of their talent and ability to take admission in best universities of the country. Hence overall academic performance of the student would downfall with lack of financial resources for the students (Bochner et al, 1977).

3.3 Social and academic integration

Large number of studies has highlighted the importance of social and academic integration for the student’s performance into graduate and higher grade studies. It has been revealed that there is high level of importance for the student’s experience, community background, skills & values and family background etc (Christie et al, 2004). As a result of these factors both social and individual attributes of a student would be important in order to determine the performance of the students towards their academics. Student’s integration would be very important so as to enhance their academic performance and they need not only to persist in the study but they should also participate in the study culture. Participation of the students would be very important for both within the learning environment as well as outside the learning environment or social integration.

It has been established through several researches that students who are more connected to their friends & family, teachers and take part in the extracurricular activities would perform better in their academics in comparison to the students who are not well connected and do not take part in the extracurricular activities as well. Another research supports the fact that students having social support from friends and family have positive impact on the academic performance of the students. Having good relationship with the fellow students, sharing room with other students and having relationship with the faculty members positively influence the performance of students (Cokley et al, 2001). This overall impact of the academic integration and social integration for the international students can be named as Tinto’s interaction model.

Existing research have evaluated four important concepts in the academic integration which includes personal, social, academic and emotional adjustment and attachments made by a student. Academic adjustment for a student would include the degree of cooperation which is established by student in order to fulfill education demands such as motivation, discipline, hard work and satisfaction with the academic environment. Social integration factor would include the ability of the students in order to deal with the interpersonal demand of the study such as develop a good friend circle and becoming a part of the social activity and working in the groups. Emotional and personal adjustment for the students indicates that students should have required level of physical and psychological distress in order to adapt the academic way of life. Attachment with these factors would require student’s personal goal related with the university goals and objectives (Beyers & Goossens, 2002). It has been established that students who are capable of fulfilling various demand of education in terms of the social adjustment, personal adjustment, emotional adjustment and academic adjustments would be able to perform much better in comparison to other students who are studying with them. These factors would be able to develop higher involvement level among the students towards their academics.

3.4 Social life

Social life of a student outside the academic environment would have a critical impact on the overall academic performance of a student. Social life of student would enhance the social integration leading to the student’s involvement and interaction with the other stakeholders of the society. For international students coming from different countries it is important to have sufficient number of friends from their domestic culture. Friends of domestic culture would be helpful in order to share the homeliness feeling and festivals of their domestic country which are not being celebrated in the country of their study (Berry, 1999). Friend circle from the host country would also be an important factor as these friends would help the students to understand about the culture and other aspects of the host country which should be known to international students in order to merge with the culture of host country. Other social life parameter for students includes sharing the accommodation with other students, becoming a member of the study association and joining a sports club. All these social life parameters would be important for the students of international origin in order to ensure high academic performance of the students. The main benefit of all these activities and parameters would be in terms of developing the social setting in close conformity with the university rules and regulations and all this would enhance student’s participation towards the academic goals. Having a social life for the international students would benefit them to have regular interaction of the students with their fellow students and teachers along with having lower stress level after study time. Social life would help them to share their personal & education issues and would allow exploring possible solution for the issues encountered by the students. Students who are not having social life and do not interact with the fellow students and college staff on regular basis would experience high level of stress in their life.

3.5 Social network of students

A social network developed by students would be helpful in enhancing academic performance for the students wherein students can join various social networks based on the online platform or physical networks. Social study groups are usually formed in order to develop collaborative study efforts and students who are weak into particular subjects would be given coaching for the particular subjects by the fellow students studying with them (Bok, 2003). This would also foster a sense of competition among all students and thereby directly impacting the academic performance of the students. Online social network are formed by the students in form of social blogs, forums and other social network wherein pertaining to particular subject or course group would be formed. These social blogs or forum would share the various information regarding particular course, assignments and solution for the issues and problems faced by students. Many universities in UK have their specific student forums wherein students and teacher can interact with each other in order to discuss any issues faced pertaining to the course and this also helps for other students as well.

These networking activities for the students would help the students with several benefits such as to form vast information reserves, enhance opportunity for interaction with fellow students & teachers, to give collaborative learning opportunity, to provide platform to ask as many questions and to gain access of the problem & solution from post made by other students. There would be several information sources posted on the forums and blogs by different students pertaining to the reference books, solution for problems and methodology to deal with particular problems encountered. This would form a vast resource of knowledge for the students who are present on the online forums and even for the students who have newly jointed the university. Past year data and information sources would be present in the online forums & blogs in order to provide access to knowledge and thereby contributing towards the higher academic performance of a student (Gijselaers & Milter, 2009). Newly joined students would also get the opportunity to interact with their fellow students and senior students who are active on these blogs and forums. Collaborative learning opportunity would be present for the international students as they can make groups with local students and study together. Further some of the students may face issue with English language and online platforms such as blogs and forums would be helpful for these people as they can translate the conversation and accordingly can accomplish their class work (Tinto, 1998). Hence overall it can be said that social network formed by a student through online or offline modes would be helpful in order to ensure their success in academics.

3.6 Social support by family and friends

It has been developed through several researches that family and friend’s support to the international students would be helpful in order to enhance their academic performance. Educational psychology establish and important finding which highlight the role of friends and family of a student towards the attitude and motivation formation for the students. Lack of social support to the students especially for those who are facing performance issue would create problems for the students and would reduce the academic performance. In case family of a student supports that particular students and motivate them to continue their study despite of early failure in their academic would develop self confidence for the students so that they would consider it as a challenge to get pass in exam in very next attempt. Motivation offered by the fellow students and friend circle can boost the confidence of a student in order to enhance their academic performance (Thomas, 2002). Hence in case friends and family of students are supporting him in order to carry their study, academic performance would certainly be better as compared to the situation when family and friends of a student are not supporting him for studies.

Hence overall it can be said that academic performance of a student would be highly related with several factors such as the social support, financial support, social integration and academic integration of a student (Tinto, 2005). All these factors are considered to have a direct relationship with the academic performance of a student i.e. these factors would prove positive for the student and enhance the overall performance of a student. Further several researches have contributed in order to identify these factors and fulfilling literature gap for the current topic.

4.0 Methodology

Present research carried out in order to identify and establish relationship between various factors responsible for the academic performance of an international student in UK would make use of the exploratory research method. Exploratory research design method is being used for research problems which are not clear and this method would provide the best possible research design, data collection method and data analysis method as well. Exploratory research design implemented in the present research context would make use of both primary as well as secondary research methods (Shields and Rangarjan, 2013). The purpose of using the exploratory research method would be to get familiarize with particular phenomenon of identifying various factors responsible for academic performance of a student and establishing relationship between these factors.

Exploratory research design would make use of the preliminary data collected through both primary as well as secondary data collection techniques in order to check the hypothesis formed or research question framed in the research context. The present research would test the hypothesis regarding relation of various factors with the academic performance of the international students in UK such as academic integration, social integration, social support, financial support and social life of a student (Babbie, 2007). Research design would be more inclined towards the qualitative data instead of the quantitative data in present research context of the academic performance of a student.

Data collection process for the present research would be two fold i.e. making use of the primary data collection methods as well as secondary data collection. The two methods of data collection can be justified basis the fact the including two different methods for data collection would help in order to eliminate any possibility of biases towards the data collection and interpreting results from the collected data set (Shields and Hassan, 2006). Secondary data collection process would be used in order to understand the factors which are already responsible in order to affect the academic performance of international students in UK. A set of several variables would be received through the existing literature in order to provide basis input to start the research. Secondary research process for the current research would be conducted with the help of literature review method. Some of the major sources for literature review in the present research would include existing research in the field of determinants for academic performance of international students, journals and other articles pertaining to the chosen research area. Different resources would be used in order to develop the literature review and to ensure that there is no single source literature review conducted. Inclusion of multiple sources for secondary research would help so as to avoid any possible biases in the collected data and a comprehensive secondary research data would be presented.

Primary research method used for the current research would make use of the most important source of primary information which is survey method (Armstrong, 2007). Survey for primary research is being done in order to collect the responses from a particular sample size. A questionnaire would be developed with particular set of questions included and this questionnaire would be filled by the sample selected for the research context. Questionnaire is an important tool to collect primary information as this would document the information and provide ease for the researcher in order to analyze the information through statistical analysis method.

Sampling process involves choosing the particular set of respondents in order to take response on the questionnaire designed. Questionnaire would be designed by keeping in mind various objectives of the present research wherein each research objective would be included in the questionnaire and respondents would be asked to give their opinion on these questions. A sample size of 60 students would be taken from the international students studying in UK. The desire profile of the students who would be contacted for the present research would include the students of international origin, age range from 15 years to 30 years, pursuing different courses, studying in university and having vintage of at least 1 year with the University of UK.

In order to sample the respondents for primary research method convenience sampling method would be used which would identify students based on the convenience. Questionnaire would be distributed through email and physical forms depending upon the convenience in order to get the form filled. Convenience sampling would involve elimination of any biases from the primary data collected from the present research (Brains et al, 2011). Questionnaire would be designed based on the various factors identified based on the literature review for the dependent variable which is academic performance of international students in UK. Respondents would be given basic understanding of the present research work and objectives which have been selected for the current research work.

Data collected through the primary research would be organized in statistical format so as to obtain significant output from the present data. A multiple regression would be used in order to analyze the importance and linkage of various variables with the dependent variable. Values collected for each of the independent variables would be mapped against the academic performance of the students and variation in the values would be analyzed for each of the variable. Factors which would not be significant for the present analysis would be left apart in order to form a framework for the analysis of academic performance for international students. Data analysis for the secondary data collected in present research would be done through content analysis method where in secondary data would be analyzed according to research objectives in present research. The basic aim of the secondary research would be to identify major variables of interest which are making variation in the dependent variable named academic performance. Primary data would be analyzed through statistical method wherein with the help of multiple regressions analysis would be carried out in the present research.

5.0 Findings

5.1 Secondary research

Secondary research was conducted in the present research context with the help of literature review method as this was the only source of secondary data collection for the present research. In order to collect the secondary data in present research the major tool was existing researches in area of determinants of academic performance, journals, articles and other sources of the information pertaining to present area of research. The main aim of the secondary data research was to identify major variables which are responsible for the academic performance of the international students in UK. Present research has identified several variables such as the learning preferences, social integration, academic integration, social life, social support, financial support and networking.

Based on the justification for each independent variable a model was framed which would help in order to justify the variance in the target variable so that each independent variable has its contribution in order to explain the variance in the resultant variable. The first variable selected was learning preferences made by student wherein it was found out that there are mainly four style of learning which can be followed by teacher and depending upon the match between the style adopted by teacher and learning preference of student a coherence can be developed and in case a good fit is achieved this would positive affect the student performance for their academic grades. Second important variable identified for the present context was academic and social integration. Students who are more integrated with their academic factors and socially integrated would be having higher involvement towards the academics and these students would attain much higher grades in comparison to other students. Academic integration and social integration of students would include several factors such as student’s experience, community background, skills & values and family background. These variables would be able to determine the level of academic and social integration of a student.

Networking abilities of students would be important in order to define their overall performance as with higher contacts and relations with the fellow students, seniors and faculty members students would be benefited in order to take their response and feedback in timely manner. This would guide the students in their educational and professional journey as well. Networking abilities of the students would help them in order to access various information sources such as books, journals and online sources as well. Financial support made by the parents would be an important factor for the students and students with good financial support would be able to get higher grade in comparison to students not having proper financial support from their family members.

Social life of a student is very important as a student who usually socializes with their family and friend circle would be in lesser stress as compared to the students who are not having good social life. Social life of a student would be helpful in order to reduce stress from the students and motivate him. A student with good social life is expected to perform much better in their academics as compared to a person who do not have adequate social exposure.

Social support from friends and family is another major factor identified responsible for the academic performance of international students in UK. Social support from friends and family can be in terms of supporting a person at his adverse time, e.g. in case a student is not able to meet expectation and meet failure in the subject at that time social support from friends and family would help him in order to make continuous efforts and excel in his career. Financial support obtained by a student from his family would be critical in assessing the overall academic performance as it is the known fact that students with good financial background would be able to access more study resources and can make better academic performance as compared to the students who are not having proper financial support and looking for alternate sources of finance in order to accomplish their financial needs.

Hence overall there are major 7 variables identified in the literature review which can be responsible for the academic performance of the international students in UK. Out of these 7 variables of interest further filtration can be in order to include or exclude any of the factors so as to develop a best fit model which would predict the academic grades for a student. These seven variables include social life, social support, social integration, academic integration, financial support, networking and learning preferences.

5.2 Primary research

Questionnaire part-I

There were two part of the questionnaire wherein first part of the questionnaire collects the basic information pertaining to students and their background in order to understand whether the present respondent falls under our defined set of respondents which should be contacted in order to collect the required information. Basic information pertaining to respondents such as country, gender, age, marital status and course pursued by the candidate etc. According to the present data plan the desire profile for respondent was international students hence it was made sure that only international students fill this questionnaire. So in response to first question regarding international student or not all responses were received yes as for the responses wherein negative response was received for this question, respondents were asked not to fill the rest of questionnaire as the present research was specifically related to the international students studying in UK.

Most of the students contacted for the collection of primary data were from Asian countries such as India, China and Pakistan etc. While rest of the students were from all other countries in the world and these students were looking for good education in UK University. More than 60% of the respondents for the present questionnaire were admitted into the masters’ course and PhD while just 40% of the respondents were into bachelor courses. Further since we were selecting the students of 2nd year onward so as to understand the importance of various factors on their academic performance hence in response to the question 9 regarding year of study 100% of the students responded for 2nd year and 3rd year. In response to the question regarding academic grades, for all the students grades were recorded in percentage terms and these grades were sorted in percentage term from high to low. Against the percentage of these 60 students response of the second part of the questionnaire would be recorded.

In response to the question regarding impact of way of lecturer’s delivery on the understanding part of the student it was revealed that more than 80% of the respondent consider it as an important factor for them. This highlights that depending upon the style of teacher used in class room for teaching the students effectiveness of the teaching method hence overall understanding for the teachers would be decided. There can be different teaching style for the teacher such as through visual, aural or can be through read/write as well. Hence each student would have their preference style and based on the style adopted by teacher a match would be developed between the desired style of students and style used by teacher and this would lead to the understanding part of the students for the students hence therefore becoming responsible for the academic performance of the student.

In response to the question regarding class discussion it was found that 30% of the students are facing issues in the class discussion but these students would discuss their issues with the social network or study group developed online or at offline mode. In response to the question regarding contacting the teacher regularly it was observed that more than 70% of the students are contacting their teachers through several modes such as one to one interaction, email or by telephone in order to clear their doubts while 30% of the students are not interested in contacting their teachers even at the time of any doubt. Further comparing this with the student’s grade it was established that students having high grade are contacting their teachers regularly while students who are not contacting their teachers on regular basis would not be able to get high grade in their academics.

In response to question regarding involvement of the students into various learning activities more than 65% of the students responded that they are regularly involves into the learning activities such as online forums, blogs and learning groups developed. In response to the question regarding whether you have made friends in the University it was revealed that more than 90% of the respondents replied that they have good friend circle belonging to their domestic culture as well as from the host culture as well. In response to the question regarding friends being from the origin country more than 40% of the students responded that there friend circle is mainly from the host countries. Hence it can be established that 60% of the students are having friend circle from domestic country only while 40% students are able to develop their friend circle in host country as well. In relation to the question regarding participation in the activity outside the academic environment it was revealed that more than 35% of the students are taking participation in the activities outside their academic environment and these are basically those students having very good academic grades as well. One of the important observations which can be made here is that students who are socially active and involved into the social activities would be having good academic performance.

In response to the question regarding staying in touch with the friends and family helps a student to gain good grade 80% of the students were of the view that it is of benefit to the student’s performance to remain in touch with their family and friends as such students would be always having good academic grades in comparison to the students who are not actively contacting their friends and family. In relation to the question regarding family support obtained by the students it was revealed that 70% of the students were supported by their friends and family in order to carry out their higher education and it is expected that students with good family support would be good at their academic grades in comparison to the students who are not well supported by their friends and families. In response to the question regarding payment of tuition fee it was observed that more than 40% of the students are financially supported by their families and there are no financial issues faced by these students in order to carry out their education while these were students having good academic performance. Hence there is direct relationship observed between the financial support received by a student and academic performance of that student.

Questionnaire part-II

Primary data analysis for the present research was carried out by development of questionnaire with the help of intended research objectives. Dependent variable selected in the present research was academic performance of an international student and independent variables were Academic integration, social integration, social network, social support, social life and financial support for the students. A separate questionnaire as given in appendix-2 was developed so as to take responses from the students on given questionnaire for carrying out multiple regressions on the collected data. In this questionnaire respondents were asked to give rating for themselves on several variables such as the Academic integration, social integration, social network, social support, social life and financial support. Rating was to be given on a scale of 1 to 5 wherein for all variable rating 5 was for the best possible and 1 was given for the least possible variable. For example for variable named financial support in case some student has very good financial support from his family a rating of 5 would be given while in case some student belongs to poor family and do not have proper financial support then that student would be given a rating of 1 and accordingly rating from 1 to 5 would be given by students to themselves depending upon financial support made by their family to them. All the students have been asked to provide rating on the 6 variables to themselves and these rating have been mounted against the academic grade received by the student. For example, data set for one of the student can be given as under:

Sr. No Average Grade Academic integration Social integration Social network Social support Social life Financial support
1 97 4 5 4 4 5 4

Table 1: Showing the sample data collected for one respondent

The data collected through present questionnaire has been analyzed in the statistical analysis process by making use of the multiple regression technique wherein each variable was assessed for the dependent variable i.e. academic grade of the student.

Regression Statistics

 

Multiple R 0.88589
R Square 0.784801
Adjusted R Square 0.760439
Standard Error 7.528763
Observations 60

Table 2: Showing the summary statistics for Regression analysis

As shown in the table 2 above that there are 60 observations analyzed through multiple regression technique and R square value received through the present multiple regression technique comes out to be 0.78 which signifies that the present model develops a very good fit with the presented data. R square value signifies that more than 78% of the variation in the data can be explained through the 6 independent variables selected in the present context. Hence this variation explained by the 6 variables is of significant nature hence the present model can’t be neglected as it provides proper explanation for the variation in data named academic grade or academic performance of the students. Multiple R value presented in the present table gives the value of intercept which would be used for form the equation for multiple regressions. Out of the total variation made by all the variables for 78% the most important variable responsible for the variation of academic performance among international students is academic integration which can explain the 69% of variation in data when analyzed individually with the dependent variable. It is followed by social life variable which has the capability to explain 46% of the variance in dependent variable data. Deciding the importance order finance support stands at 3rd place, social integration 4th place, social network 5th place and finally the least important variable is social support for the students. Individual output for the analysis of each independent variable and dependent variable has been provided in appendix.

ANOVA
  df SS MS F Significance F
Regression 6 10955.77 1825.962 32.21399 0.000000
Residual 53 3004.161 56.68228
Total 59 13959.93      

Table 2: Showing ANOVA for the present analysis

As shown in the table 2 above that significance value received for the present set of variables comes out to be 0.00 hence this value is lesser than 0.05 so the present model can be used further in order to predict value for the dependent variable. This can be called as validity test for the present set of variables. In case high F value is obtained it is important that P value from table 3 should be analyzed and variable having high P value in table 3 should be deleted to obtain a lower F value.

  Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper 95% Lower 95.0% Upper 95.0%
Intercept 33.97587478 4.773483618 7.117627 2.92E-09 24.40147935 43.55027 24.40148 43.55027
X Var 1 6.975279191 1.065385622 6.547187 2.41E-08 4.838386296 9.112172 4.838386 9.112172
X Var 2 2.841739993 0.917120795 3.098545 0.003109 1.002228673 4.681251 1.002229 4.681251
X Var 3 1.031601262 1.023765119 1.007654 0.318199 -1.021811478 3.085014 -1.02181 3.085014
X Var 4 -0.355722921 0.858253722 -0.41447 0.680201 -2.077161847 1.365716 -2.07716 1.365716
X Var 5 1.727969232 1.130077756 1.529071 0.132194 -0.538679648 3.994618 -0.53868 3.994618
X Var 6 0.395761698 1.057079445 0.374392 0.709607 -1.724471117 2.515995 -1.72447 2.515995

Table 3: Shows the intercept and coefficient for the independent variables

From the table above the multiple regressions equation can be formed as given below:

Academic performance (AF)=33.97+6.97AI+2.84SI+1.03SN-0.35SS+1.72SL+0.39FS

So in order to find out the value of academic performance variable at any desired values of the dependent variable values would be inputted in above equation and a final result for the academic performance variable can be obtained from the above equation.

Figure 1 below provides the residual plot for the present data set which provides the exact value and expected value of dependent variable. Based on the residual value for the each observation residual plot has been made and its output can be plotted as under:

Figure 1: Showing the residual plot for the observations taken

As shown in residual plot above that the value of variable 1 lies on horizontal scale from 0 to 6 and for our present analysis residual values are lying at 1-5. Residual values and expected value set for the 60 observations taken in present context can be given in form of table in appendix.

6.0 Interpretation and analysis

From the secondary research carried through literature review 6 variables have been shortlisted which are responsible for the academic performance of an international student in UK. These six shortlisted variables are social life, social integration, social support, academic integration, networking and financial support obtained by the international students from their families. These six variables have been shortlisted depending upon the results of various studies and based on the probability of carrying highest degree of variance for the resultant variable i.e. academic performance of a student. Hence secondary data research carried through literature review builds the base for multiple regression models by providing 6 independent variables and one dependent variable in order to explore relationship between these dependent and independent variables.

Results from the primary research carried through questionnaire method can be analyzed in two parts. First part of the questionnaire which asks for basic information contains information regarding profile of the respondents contacted for filling the questionnaire and this questionnaire highlights and selects the particular respondent based on the profiles which have been defined in the methodology section.

Primary research in part-2 gives an important implication for the present research context. The major research implication is the factors which are most important in the phenomenon of academic performance for international students in UK. In sequence from highest important to least importance variables responsible for academic performance of a student can be given as below:

(In sequence from most important to least important variable responsible for academic performance of an international student in UK)

  1. Academic integration
  2. Social life
  3. Financial support
  4. Social integration
  5. Social network
  6. Social support from friends and family

Hence the primary research provides analysis of data through multiple regression method so as to develop the relationship between these independent variables and dependent variable. Further it has been analyzed that social support variable is showing adverse relationship with the phenomenon of academic performance of a student. Another important analysis through present research is the significance level for the current model of variables developed which helps in order to carry out this research with high validity. Present model provides a good fit in order to predict the value of academic performance for the students by giving an appropriate value of the significance level variable.

Conclusion and recommendations

From the present research it can be concluded that in order to predict the academic performance of an international student in UK there are six major variables which needs to be study and these variables are social support, social integration, social life, financial support, academic integration and social network of a student. Out of these six variables identified in the literature review of present research it was explored through the primary data collection and analysis that in terms of highest degree of importance for predicting value of academic performance of a student Academic integration is the most vital factor followed by social life, financial support, social integration, social network and social support given to a student. These rankings have been assigned to these factors based upon the variance explained by each of these variables in the multiple regression technique adopted in order to find out variability in the resultant variable. There is strong correlation in the model developed with these variables and resultant variable can be accurately predicted by adopting value of these variables. Hence it can be concluded that having high degree of academic participation for the students would be an important parameter to decide over the final academic grades obtained by a student.

Recommendations can be presented in the present context so as to enhance student’s academic performance for the international students studying in UK. Academic integration is the most important aspect and students should be involved into various academic and non academic activities so that they are more inclined towards the academic activity rather than entertainment. Further Universities with poor academic results should focus their attention in order to enhance the academic integration factor through organizing events, conducting academic integration modules and training teachers to make students more involved in studies so that overall academic integration for the students can be obtained which would definitely add to the academic performance of the students in UK.

Social life of the student can help them to provide stress release after hectic study schedule and students should be encouraged in order to spend some time with their social circle in order to share their issues and problems faced. Social life can be enhanced by providing opportunity to students for social gathering or through some trip wherein all students can join together and this would enhance bonding between the students adding to the social life of the students. Financial support is an important parameter responsible for the student’s academic performance. Before making admission to the University students should themselves plan about the financial arrangement which would be made towards the payment of various fees charged from the students. This would help them to rest assured during their study time and they would not have to look for additional resources of finance during their study. Further students should avail education loan from the financial institutions so as to smoothly mange the finance part without bothering about the payment at required time. Social integration and social network should be encouraged among the students of international origin so that they can mingle with the other students of domestic as well as host country in order to make joint study arrangement and to learn about the host country culture. This would help the students to feel comfortable in the host country. Families of the international students should support them especially at their bad time or time of meeting failure as this would enhance their motivation level in order to carry out their studies further. Hence present research indicates that social stakeholders such as friends and family have high importance in order to ensure the performance for the international students studying in UK.

Appendix

Questionnaire on:

Factors shaping the academic achievement of international students in

Part-I

Please answer the following questions by circling the correct answer:

Q1. Are you an international student?

Q2. Which country are you from?

Q3. What is your gender?

  1. Male
  2. Female

Q4. What is your age?

Q5. What is your marital status?

  1. Married
  2. Single
  3. Divorced
  4. Other please specify…………………………………

Q6. What degree are you studying for?

  1. Bachelors
  2. Masters
  3. PHD

Q7. What course are you studying?

Q8. Have you graduated yet?

  1. Jump to Q10
  2. No

Q9. If you are an undergraduate student, which year are you now?

  1. 1st year
  2. 2nd year
  3. 3rd year

Q10. What is your average grade? {In percentage}

Q11. Do you think the way the lecturer speaks is important in understanding the lecture?

  1. Yes
  2. No

Q12. Do you have difficulties with class discussion?

  1. Yes (explain why………………………………………..
  2. No

Q13. Do you contact your tutors regularly?

  1. Yes (how many times per week?……………)
  2. No (explain why……………………………………………..

Q14. Do you get involved in a variety of learning activities, not just listening to lectures?

  1. Yes
  2. Why?…………………………………….

Q15. Have you made some friends at your University?

  1. Yes
  2. Why?……………………………………….

Q16 Are your friends mainly from your origin country?

    1. Yes
    2. No (please explain which countries are they from……………………

Q17. Have you participated in any society/club outside the academic environment?

  1. Yes
  2. Why?……………………………………….

Q18. Do you agree that staying regularly in touch with your family and friends would help you achieve good result in your studies?

  1. Yes
  2. Why?………………………………………………..

Q19. Have your family and friends supported you throughout you degree?

  1. Yes (explain how……………
  2. No

 

Q20. Who is paying your tuition fees?

 

Q20. Do you have any financial issues?

  1. Yes
  2. No

 

Q21. Dose the financial issue have any impact on your studies?

  1. Yes ( How/why did it affect you?………….
  2. No

 

Part-II

Please rate the below variables pertaining to you on a scale of 1 to 5 wherein 5 is for the best value and 1 shows least possible value.

  1. Academic Integration
  2. Social integration
  3. Social support
  4. Social network
  5. Social life
  6. Financial support

Thank You !!

Output for the multiple regressions for all variables combined

 

SUMMARY OUTPUT
 
Regression Statistics  
Multiple R 0.885890068
R Square 0.784801212
Adjusted R Square 0.760439086
Standard Error 7.52876337
Observations 60
ANOVA
  df SS MS F Significance F
Regression 6 10955.77261 1825.962 32.21399 0.000000
Residual 53 3004.160728 56.68228
Total 59 13959.93333      
  Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper 95% Lower 95.0% Upper 95.0%
Intercept 33.97587478 4.773483618 7.117627 2.92E-09 24.40147935 43.55027 24.40148 43.55027
X Variable 1 6.975279191 1.065385622 6.547187 2.41E-08 4.838386296 9.112172 4.838386 9.112172
X Variable 2 2.841739993 0.917120795 3.098545 0.003109 1.002228673 4.681251 1.002229 4.681251
X Variable 3 1.031601262 1.023765119 1.007654 0.318199 -1.021811478 3.085014 -1.02181 3.085014
X Variable 4 -0.355722921 0.858253722 -0.41447 0.680201 -2.077161847 1.365716 -2.07716 1.365716
X Variable 5 1.727969232 1.130077756 1.529071 0.132194 -0.538679648 3.994618 -0.53868 3.994618
X Variable 6 0.395761698 1.057079445 0.374392 0.709607 -1.724471117 2.515995 -1.72447 2.515995

 

Output for variable Academic integration

 

SUMMARY OUTPUT
Regression Statistics
Multiple R 0.836494
R Square 0.699722
Adjusted R Square 0.694545
Standard Error 8.50138
Observations 60
ANOVA
  df SS MS F Significance F
Regression 1 9768.072 9768.072 135.1543 8.73E-17
Residual 58 4191.861 72.27347
Total 59 13959.93      
  Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper 95% Lower 95.0% Upper 95.0%
Intercept 43.47387 2.79573 15.55009 2.37E-22 37.8776 49.07013 37.8776 49.07013
X Variable 1 9.591273 0.825014 11.62559 8.73E-17 7.939828 11.24272 7.939828 11.24272

 

Output for social integration

 

SUMMARY OUTPUT
Regression Statistics
Multiple R 0.50841
R Square 0.258481
Adjusted R Square 0.245696
Standard Error 13.35946
Observations 60
ANOVA
  df SS MS F Significance F
Regression 1 3608.372 3608.372 20.21778 3.36E-05
Residual 58 10351.56 178.4752
Total 59 13959.93      
  Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper 95% Lower 95.0% Upper 95.0%
Intercept 53.67901 4.705957 11.40661 1.89E-16 44.25901 63.099 44.25901 63.099
X Variable 1 6.63629 1.475906 4.496418 3.36E-05 3.681943 9.590636 3.681943 9.590636

 

Output for social network

 

SUMMARY OUTPUT
Regression Statistics
Multiple R 0.491518
R Square 0.24159
Adjusted R Square 0.228514
Standard Error 13.51076
Observations 60
ANOVA
  df SS MS F Significance F
Regression 1 3372.58 3372.58 18.47579 6.66E-05
Residual 58 10587.35 182.5406
Total 59 13959.93      
  Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper 95% Lower 95.0% Upper 95.0%
Intercept 50.51182 5.595906 9.026568 1.2E-12 39.3104 61.71324 39.3104 61.71324
X Variable 1 6.624593 1.541196 4.298347 6.66E-05 3.539555 9.709632 3.539555 9.709632

 

Output for social support

 

SUMMARY OUTPUT
Regression Statistics
Multiple R 0.246348
R Square 0.060687
Adjusted R Square 0.044492
Standard Error 15.03602
Observations 60
ANOVA
  df SS MS F Significance F
Regression 1 847.1906 847.1906 3.747275 0.057773
Residual 58 13112.74 226.0818
Total 59 13959.93      
  Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper 95% Lower 95.0% Upper 95.0%
Intercept 82.52894 5.115685 16.13253 4.16E-23 72.28878 92.7691 72.28878 92.7691
X Variable 1 -3.19614 1.65108 -1.93579 0.057773 -6.50114 0.108855 -6.50114 0.108855

 

Output for social life

 

SUMMARY OUTPUT
Regression Statistics
Multiple R 0.681364
R Square 0.464257
Adjusted R Square 0.45502
Standard Error 11.35549
Observations 60
ANOVA
  df SS MS F Significance F
Regression 1 6480.996 6480.996 50.26085 2.07E-09
Residual 58 7478.938 128.9472
Total 59 13959.93      
  Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper 95% Lower 95.0% Upper 95.0%
Intercept 48.11329 3.851959 12.4906 4.37E-18 40.40275 55.82382 40.40275 55.82382
X Variable 1 7.932999 1.11898 7.089489 2.07E-09 5.693116 10.17288 5.693116 10.17288

Output for financial support

 

SUMMARY OUTPUT
Regression Statistics
Multiple R 0.586505
R Square 0.343988
Adjusted R Square 0.332677
Standard Error 12.56561
Observations 60
ANOVA
  df SS MS F Significance F
Regression 1 4802.045 4802.045 30.41298 8.47E-07
Residual 58 9157.888 157.8946
Total 59 13959.93      
  Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper 95% Lower 95.0% Upper 95.0%
Intercept 52.79403 4.067898 12.97821 8.44E-19 44.65124 60.93681 44.65124 60.93681
X Variable 1 6.895857 1.250428 5.514796 8.47E-07 4.392853 9.398862 4.392853 9.398862

 

Reference

Shields, P and Rangarjan, N, 2013. A Playbook for REsearch Methods: Integrating Conceptual Frameworks and Project Management. Stillwater, OK: New Forums Press.

Babbie, E, 2007. The Practice of Social Research. 11th edition. Belmont CA: Thompson – Wadsworth. pp. 87-89.

Shields, P and Hassan T, 2006. Intermediate Theory: The Missing Link in Successful Student Scholarship. Journal of Public Affairs Education. Vol. 12, No. 3. Pp. 313-334. http://ecommons.txstate.edu/polsfacp/39/

Armstrong A (2007). “How to Avoid Exploratory Research”. Journal of Advertising Research 10: 27–30.

Brains, C., Willnat, L,, Manheim, J., Rich, R. 2011. Empirical Political Analysis 8th edition. Boston, MA: Longman. p.76.

Asmar, C. (2005). Internationalising students: Reassessing diasporic and local student difference. Studies in Higher Education, 30(3), 291–309.

Attewell, P., Lavin, D., Domina, T., & Levey, T. (2006). New evidence on college remediation. The Journal of Higher Education, 77(5), 886–924.

Baker, R. W., & Siryk, B. (1999). SACQ student adaptation to college questionnaire (2nd ed.). Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.

Barrie, S. C. (2007). A conceptual framework for the teaching and learning of generic graduate attributes. Studies in Higher Education, 32(4), 439–458.

Berry, J. W. (1999). Intercultural relations in plural societies. Canadian Psychology, 40(1), 12–21.

Beyers, W., & Goossens, L. (2002). Concurrent and predictive validity of the student adaptation to college questionnaire in a sample of European freshman students. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 62(3), 527–538.

Bochner, S., McLeod, B. M., & Lin, A. (1977). Friendship patterns of overseas students: A functional model. International Journal of Psychology, 12(4), 277–294.

Bok, D. C. (2003). Universities in the marketplace: The commercialization of higher education. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Christie, H., Munro, M., & Fisher, T. (2004). Leaving university early: Exploring the differences between continuing and non-continuing students. Studies in Higher Education, 29, 617–636.

Cokley, K., Bernard, N., Cunningham, D., & Motoike, J. (2001). A psychometric investigation of the academic motivation scale using a United States sample. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 34(2), 109–119.

Severiens, S., & Wolff, R. (2008). A comparison of ethnic minority and majority students: Social and academic integration, and quality of learning. Studies in Higher Education, 33, 253–266.

Tempelaar, D. T., Rienties, B., Giesbers, B., & Schim van der Loeff, S. (2011). Effectiveness of a voluntary postsecondary remediation program in mathematics. In P. Van den Bossche, W. H. Gijselaers, & R. G. Milter (2009), Advances in business education and training (Vol. 4). Dordrecht: Springer.

Tempelaar, D. T., Rienties, B., & Gijselaers, W. H. (2006). Internationalisering: en de Nederlandse student? Onderzoek van Onderwijs, 35(3), 40–45.

Thomas, L. (2002). Student retention in higher education: The role of institutional habitus. Journal of Education Policy, 17(4), 423–442.

Tinto, V. (2005). Dropout from higher education: A theoretical synthesis of recent research. Review of Educational Research, 45(1), 89–125.

Tinto, V. (1998). Colleges as communities: Taking research on student persistence seriously. The Review of Higher Education, 21(2), 167–177.

Van d. (2003). Globalisation and access to higher education. Journal of Studies in International Education, 7(2), 193–206.

Ward, C., & Kennedy, A. (1993). Where’s the ‘‘culture’’ in cross-cultural transition? Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 24(2), 221–249.

Ward, C., Okura, Y., Kennedy, A., & Kojima, T. (1998). The U-Curve on trial: A longitudinal study of psychological and sociocultural adjustment during Cross-Cultural transition. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 22(3), 277–291.

Wilcox, P., Winn, S., & Fyvie-Gauld, M. (2005). It was nothing to do with the university, it was just the people: The role of social support in the first-year experience of higher education. Studies in Higher Education, 30(6), 707–722.

 

 is pioneer in the services and we offer coursework help with 100% unique content, quality content by adopting required theories & concepts. Our experts have PhD in various fields so that the students can get their assignment with quality work for attain A++ grades in their work. We are having 7 years of experience for offering assignment help for , management assignment helpeconomics assignment help, Assignment help for economics,  finance assignment helpAccounting assignment help, operation assignment help and others. For assignment help you can contact us at hndassignmenthelp@gmail.com

HND Assignment help is leading and most trusted assignment help service providing range of services for the different subjects but the major area of focus for the organization is HND Assignments. HND in the higher national diploma being offered by the various universities across the world and highest number of students pursue their HND from United Kingdom. HND Assignment help is working with the students in UK since last 7 years for helping them in their HND assignments. We provide help for various HND subjects like HND in business management, HND in travel & tourism management, HND in hospitality management, HND in accounting management, HND in human resource management, HND in law and HND in health and social care etc. Our experts have long experience in writing HND Assignments and they themselves are HND holder from the top notch Universities in United Kingdom. So, we are the best place to get your HND assignments. Contact us at hndassignmenthelp@gmail.com.

HND in business management offered by the HND Assignment Help offers high quality work for the mandatory as well as optional units such as the work based experience (WBE), employability skills, business ethics, European Business, operation management in business, small business enterprise, Quality management in business, internet marketing, human resource development, managing human resource, human resource management, advertising and promotion in business, Managing communication, knowledge and information (MCKI), Managing business activities to achieve results (MBAAR), Working with and leading people (WWLP), Personal and professional development (PPD), Research project (RP), Business strategy, Business decision making, marketing principle, Organization and behavior, Managing financial resources and decisions (MFRD) and Business environment.  

HND Assignment help offered for the Health and social care would include 100% unique content and high quality content based on the given specific case study for the healthcare context. Every unit of the health and social care would consider specific case scenario which would be answered keeping in mind the HND requirements. HND in health and social care help offered by HND assignment help would include help on various mandatory and optional units such as PPD in health and social care, Health & safety in HSC, Communication in HSC, Understanding specific needs in HSC, The role of public health in HSC, Empowering users in HSC and Research project in HSC etc. So contact us at www.hndassignmenthelp.com, www.hndassignmenthelp.co.uk and www.hndassignmenthelp.com.au.

List of latest assignments offered by HND Assignment Help are as under:

 

 

 

About the author

HND Assignment Help is the #1 Assignment help company offering hnd business management assignments at most affordable prices and 100% plagiarism free content. Contact for hnd business assignments at hndassignmenthelp@gmail.com. We are pioneer in btec hnd assignments since more than 7 years and have provided btec hnd assignment help for students around the world. Login http://www.hndassignmenthelp.co.uk for more details.

email-icon

hndassignmenthelp@gmail.com

phone-icon

+44-7464884564 (Call and what’s app)

 

student-img

Also Available On

whatsapp-icon
viber-icon
skype-icon

Fulltime Experts

24*7 Support

100+ Subjects Covered
Best Price Guaranteedt

Get A Quick Quote

Attachment is mandatory *