Table of Contents
Heritage and cultural tourism is one of the prime focus areas for the present age tourism industry where in it is responsible for the major part of revenue generated through tourism activities. The present paper would help in order to explore facts regarding cultural and heritage tourism involved into different countries. First task for the present paper would help in order to gain understanding regarding growth & development of heritage and cultural sites in tourism industry (Carter, 2009). Second task would provide information regarding purpose for which these cultural and heritage sites are visited by the tourism in tourism industry. Based on the segmentation and target group for the visitors in tourism industry purpose of the heritage tourism would be assessed for the two museums in context. Third task for the present paper would evaluate the different types of ownership in heritage and cultural site management. Based on the ownership of the heritage and cultural site management impact would be analyzed. Two organizations having ownership for the cultural and heritage sites would be analyzed. Fourth task for the present paper would evaluate role and method used for the presentation of heritage & cultural sites.
P1 Understand the growth and development of the heritage and cultural industry within travel and tourism
Heritage tourism can be defined as the travelling experience to specific places which represent authentic information regarding people and stories occurred in past. It’s a special branch of tourism industry which emphasizes on cultural heritage of the tourist places. While cultural heritage can be defined as the travelling to places representing people & stories of past and present time.
P1.1 analyze the growth and development of the heritage and cultural industry
Cultural and heritage tourism prevailing in UK is mainstay of the tourism industry and growing at rapid pace. Success factor behind the growth of cultural and heritage industry in UK include beauty, cultural importance and breadth of the places visited by people in UK. Cultural and heritage tourism industry witnesses more than 10 million trips to UK every year. It has been revealed that every 4 out of 10 visitors in UK quote heritage tourism as the most important factor for their visit to UK. Growth perspectives for the heritage tourism can be estimated from the fact that it has been established that tourism economy in UK would grow by 2.6% annually from year 2009 to 2018 in comparison to the manufacturing and other similar industries which are expected to grow by 0.8% annually (Jones, 2009). Heritage tourism in UK is not only accountable for the revenue but it is also responsible for more than 113,000 jobs which are directly created by Heritage tourism segment in UK along with 157,000 jobs which have been created indirectly in UK heritage tourism segment.
Heritage industry in UK is also one of the factors for growth to the construction industry as construction industry is gaining momentum due to repair & maintenance of historic attraction places in UK. Considering data in year 2008 where in heritage industry accounted for more than 43% of the revenue in construction industry amounting to £47.2 billion (Tilden, 2007). Further growth for the repair and maintenance is expected to rise in coming year to the tune of 8% much higher in comparison to the growth of housing construction.
Heritage tourism in UK also adds to the reputation of country where in numerous tourist comes to visit attraction places throughout the country. It has been revealed that more than 80% of the potential visitors would visit historic monuments and buildings which are highest ranked activities. As per data in year 2006 it was found out that more than 30% of the tourist visits in UK resulted into visit to historic churches, monuments and castles. Visit to historic monuments was much more in comparison to other activities such as theatre opera which was accountable for 10% tourist visit, sports activities accountable for 11% and museum which were accountable for 23% of the tourist visit in UK.
Some of the major heritage sites which are centre of attraction for the visitors in UK include Tower of London, Roman Baths, St Paul’s Cathedral, Stonehenge, York Minster, Leeds Castle, Palace of Westminister, Westminister Abbey, Chatsworth House, Hampton court palace, Blenheim palace, Stourhead and Canterbury cathedral etc. Most of these attraction places are located in London, Canterbury, Bath and York. Tower of London is most visited place in London for its heritage tourism significance with more than 2389548 number of visitors visited the place in year 2009 followed by St Paul’s Cathedral which was visited by 1821321 visitors and Westminister Abbey which was visited by 1449593 visitors (Beck and Cable, 2011).
Looking at the time perspective for the cultural and heritage tourism, Winchester Cathedral is a place of worship for more than 900 years and is famous for the hidden treasure and spectacular architecture made in Cathedral. Winchester city museum celebrated its centenary in year 2003 and highlight the story behind museum as one of the most important Roman tower. Wolvesely castle is famous for its historical significance of 25th July, 1554 when Queen Marry and Philip II of Spain had their wedding in this castle.
P1.2 discuss potential conflicts in the conservation of heritage and cultural resources
Issue of potential conflict in conservation of heritage and cultural resources is a subject of debate from several years. There are various stakeholders to the heritage and cultural resources such as the local communities, government, tourists, global communities and development agencies for the tourist spot. In order to analyze issue of conflict between increased tourism and the conservation of heritage location two case studies would be referred which are Heritage tourism in Madrid and Heritage tourism in Black River, Jamaica (Ham, 1992).
Madrid is one of the emerging tourism destinations for the heritage tourism where in every year thousands of tourists are visiting for its cultural & heritage significance. But at present Madrid is confronting issue of conflict between tourist development and protecting heritage destinations. Some of the major issues which are faced in Madrid due to conflict in heritage tourism development and conservation of heritage locations include conservation of heritage spot, impact which is made by the tourists on site, threat to conservation by growth and impact of new technology on heritage destination.
Heritage attractions are considered to be as the historic documents representing past story about the particular destination in context which makes conservation very important. Visitors coming to Madrid have negative impact on the historical monuments and sites due to which erosion of historic sites is taking place. Along with the impact on particular site immediate environment of the historic monuments is also getting affected adversely. Another issue which is arising in the Madrid concerns with land use & planning process as land surrounding historic monuments can’t be used for the residential purpose (Salazar, 2007). Capital cost employed in the historic monuments for Madrid is very high while in comparison to capital cost revenue generated are much lower and giving poor project performance looking from the financial perspective.
Another case study referred for the present context is Heritage tourism in Black River of Jamaica. The conflict of interest arises in heritage tourism in Jamaica arises mainly from the financial perspective, environmental concern and usage of technology. Analyzing the financial investment made in Jamaica for the development of heritage tourism which are quite large in nature as compared the income generated through heritage tourism, it create the problem of return on investment. Another problem is usage of technology which is decaying value of heritage monuments, environmental decay due to large number of visitor is another issue faced by heritage tourism in Jamaica. In order to resolve conflict between tourism development and protection of heritage tourism sites in Jamaica and Madrid it is important that management committee made for protection of such sites should aim at preserving historic monuments while keeping significant return on investment from the heritage tourism locations.
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P2 Understand the purpose of heritage and cultural attractions within the travel and tourism sector
Heritage tourism involves travelling to places which are associated with any kind of heritage site in the world such as physical attractions, events and festivals, routes & journey with heritage dimension, thematic travelling such as gastronomic heritage, destinations which are associated with particular theme and destinations which are associated with famous people. A pictorial view of the heritage culture and its scope can be given as under.
There are several purposes for which heritage tourism is becoming centre of attraction in present age not only in UK but around the world. Some of the major benefits sought through heritage tourism in present age include education, recreation, entertainment and research etc. In this present task these purposes for the heritage tourism would be assessed for the two museums in UK i.e. Science Museum and V &A Museum in London (Silberman, 2006). Current task would also analyze segmentation in the heritage tourism sector, visitor level and demographic criteria for the visitors.
Figure 1: Showing scope and nature of heritage tourism
As shown in the figure above that there can be several ways in which particular heritage site can be visited by tourist. Extended the scope of heritage tourism it can occur for several purposes such as heritage based holiday package, themes and destinations etc.
P2.1 assess the purpose of heritage and cultural attractions in meeting the needs of different customers
Two museums in London have been selected as the heritage tourism locations for the present task in order to understand purpose for which tourist come and visit to these locations. Science museum is one of the prime attraction places for the tourist in London; it is situated in city Kensington and home for more than 2 million tourists every year for the heritage importance of the place. Science museum in London does not charge to the tourist and considered among the public funded museums. The major purpose for which Science museum is visited by tourist worldwide include education & research for the people in field of heritage tourism, recreational and entertainment activities performed through activities provided in the museum.
Science museum holds more than 300,000 antique items which are popular in the world. Some of the major attraction items placed in Science museum in London include first Jet engine, steam engine, documentation of first typewriter and 3-D cinema etc. There are five floors located in Science museum containing different place for the items in Science museum (Tilden, 2007). Ground floor of the museum contains energy hall, force field, 3D cinema, pattern pod and theatre. First floor of the museum contains agriculture related items, cosmos & culture, telecommunication equipments. Second floor of museum contains mathematical & computing equipments. Third floor of the museum contains motion ride stimulator and Science equipments related with 18th century. Fourth floor of museum contains glimpses of medical history and fifth floor contains items related with science & art of medicine and veterinary history.
Victoria and Albert Museum is famous as one of the largest museum having permanent collection for more than 4.5 million objects for art & design items. V&A Museum located in London is containing art & design items for more than 5000 years with 145 galleries in the museum. Some of the major attraction items consisted in V&A museum includes architecture, British gallery, ceramics, furniture, fashion & jewellary, glass items and paintings & drawings. Things included in museum are of high historical importance to restore history of England and other art & design culture for the country.
There are three major segmentation in entire heritage tourism can be divided for two museums and these three segmentations include individual tourism, groups travelling together and group travelling for particular reason. Individual people interested in travelling alone to these museum mainly come to these places in order to accomplish their education, research or interest in the heritage elements. Group of people having common interest in the heritage would prefer to visit such places in a group. Third segment of people travel together may or may not have common interest but travel due to combine travel services (Moscardo et al, 2007).
Target group for the museum is students and people interested in heritage art across, both domestic as well as international tourists. The target segments of the tourist coming to such museum have leisure time, high education and income levels. Both these tourist places are home for more than 2 million tourists every year which makes the usage rate of such museum very high. Considering from the perspective of number of tourist visiting UK for the heritage culture tourism it can be stated that status for heritage culture being a leisure activity is highest as it is the most common reason for the leisure tourist to visit in UK. It can be estimated from the fact that every year more than 10 million trips are made to UK just because of heritage culture presence. Further every 4 out of 10 tourist visiting UK for leisure tripe come for the heritage and cultural significance of the place. Income generation is another major criterion for which heritage tourism is considered important for UK.
P3 Understand roles, responsibilities and ownership of organizations in the heritage and cultural industry
Establishing ownership for the heritage and cultural sites is very important as management of such sites properly would lead to additional revenue and employment opportunities for the nation. A well managed cultural and heritage site would be better conserved by the management committee and hence would lead to more number of visitors to the place every year. There can be two main examples of the ownership in the heritage and cultural sites which are public ownership and public private partnership (PPP). In public ownership main role for the protection, maintenance and promotion would be taken care by public agencies and entire income generation would also belong to them (Levy et al, 2001). In public private partnership kind of arrangement both public as well as private agencies would be involved in preserving heritage & cultural sites and income generated through these sources would also be shared among both these parties.
P3.1 evaluate the impact of different types of ownership on the management of heritage and cultural sites
Considering both public ownership and public private partnership there would be varying degree of impact on the heritage and cultural sites. Some of the major examples for the public private partnership encouraged heritage site include BankGiro Loterij, Piraeus Bank group cultural foundation, Edinburgh world heritage trust and Grainger Town Project Newcastle Upon Tyne. Examples for the public funded heritage and cultural sites can be taken as Science and V&A museum in London.
Impact of difference in ownership can be understood from the major challenges and ability of different ownership types in resolving these issues. Major challenges faced at present by the management of cultural and heritage site include requirement for the funding, higher level of responsibility & understanding, creativity and lack of entrepreneurial spirit. Public funded heritage and cultural sites are facing issues of cutback in subsidy which leads to lack of funding in order to preserve and maintain these cultural and heritage site. Through public and private partnership in managing these heritage and cultural sites it would become easy to obtain funding through such sites and income generated can also be enhanced. Another impact of the difference in ownership would be higher level of creativity and ideas. Through public private partnership in managing cultural and heritage sites better usage can be done with these sites as empty space under such sites would be maintained and given for the other commercial usage which can generate good income and does not damage heritage & cultural importance of the place.
Further with changing demographics, shrinking population and secularization people are taking lesser interest in the heritage and cultural aspects due to which such sites are losing their charm. With the help of public and private partnership there would be better promotion for such sites so that people can be encouraged in order to visit such sites and interest of people towards their culture and heritage can be maintained (Ward & Wilkinson, 2006). Further public agencies are losing mutual trust with the citizen while adopting public private partnership would help in order to gain this mutual trust by giving better facilities to citizen at these places and mutual trust can be restored through such partnership which would be of mutual benefit for both public agencies as well as citizens.
Another factor which would make impact on the cultural and heritage site is ability of the PPP to impart training and education for the people so as to conserve and understand importance for the heritage and cultural sites. PPP are better managed due to establishment of the efficient hierarchical structure in the private organization which assigns roles and responsibility into better manner leading to higher possibility for accomplishing a task into suitable manner. Advantage of such effective organizational structure can be enforced to the cultural and heritage site by building this PPP model.
P3.2 analyze roles and responsibilities of organizations in the heritage and cultural industry
In present context roles and responsibility of the organizational working for the cultural & heritage industry would be analyzed. Two organizations taken for the present task are BankGiro Loterij and Piraeus Bank. BankGiro Loterij is privately run organization which is aimed at preserving cultural and heritage aspects by donating funds towards these activities. BankGiro Loterij has collected more than 500 million Euros for museums and other monuments. There are 58 cultural organizations selected in Netherland to which entire donation amount is given so that they can preserve cultural and heritage aspect for the country. Some of the sites which have been recently restored by BankGiro Loterij include Hermitage Amsterdam, Association Hendrick de Keyser and Concetgebouw in Amsterdam.
Piraeus bank is another privately run organization which is formed in order to promote cultural activities in Greece (Regnier et al, 1994). Role of Piraeus bank is not just to provide funding for the cultural and heritage sites present in Greece but so as to promote and create interest for people towards these heritage & cultural sites containing historical story of the country. Piraeus bank fills the need for such cultural & heritage sites by contributing towards the educational and betterment for the neglected regions in the country. Piraeus bank understands importance for the contribution towards management of the site which is more important than funding for just the building. Funding for management is a long term solution in order to preserve the site in comparison to funding for building which is just a short time measure is preserving any site. Hence Piraeus bank has aim to develop sustainability towards the cultural and heritage sites in Greece so that a model of self sustainability can be initiated for the cultural and heritage sites.
P4 Understand the role of methods of interpretation within the heritage and culture industry.
Interpretation of the heritage and cultural sites is very important as it provide details regarding enriched value of such sites for the visitors. Interpretation for such sites would help the visitors to arouse interest in such activities. With the help of interpretation communication established by a person to visitor for historical significance it would be possible to appreciate the historical significance of the site in front of general public. Some of the key principle for the heritage and cultural industry are access & understanding for the historical sites, information sources, context & setting, authenticity, inclusiveness and sustainability.
Appreciation of the historical site is universal right and it should be accomplished with proper usage of stories regarding communities and societies for ancient times. It should be kept in mind that interpretation of the historical site should be based on rich information sources and evidence gathering process. For example in present context of visit to the two museums i.e. Science museum and V&A museum rich information regarding these sites were present due to which interpretation of such sites become easy for the visitor without manual intervention of the tourist guides so as to provide details regarding such sites.
P4.1 evaluate methods and media used for interpretation within the heritage and cultural industry for tourists
It was observed during visit to the Science museum and V&A museum that interpretation of the cultural and heritage site was done in such a manner that tourist can easily relate these sites with the historic stories and information which is behind such historical sites. These sites made use of the different forms of interpretation with the help of different media types so that there are facts containing information related to these cultural & heritage sites, presence of information would not only help to better illustrate these sites but also develop interest for the visitors coming to visit these sites (Levy et al, 2001). Some of the major media types which were observed in the Science and V&A museum in London include printed information, signage, exhibits, narrated visual presentations, website, visual presentation, sound & light shows, guide and videotape presentations. Printed media presentation which was observed in museum was advertisement, books, map, guidebooks, leaflet and brochure etc. Guides who help at heritage & cultural site include both guides employed at these sites as well as outside guides having wide information regarding these two sites.
Heritage and cultural tourism represented through these museum sites also have online presence so that users located at distant locations can gain information through online resources which would help them to get information and promote interest among the potential tourist so that such visitors can visit the museum. Technologies also have helped in better presentation of the information pertaining to the heritage and cultural sites and in museum with the help of video visuals information was displayed in interested manner.
From the present paper it was established that heritage and cultural sites are of wide importance for people living in the country. There is more than just economical significance for the heritage site as such sites also involve interest for the common citizens in heritage of the country so that heritage sites can be preserved. Heritage and cultural tourism is growing at rapid pace which is much faster in comparison to the other industries prevailing in the country. Purpose for the visit of heritage and cultural sites include education, research and recreational activities. Roles and responsibility for the different ownership such as public and PPP include new ideas, funding requirement and ability to promote the sites. Among the major methods for interpretation of heritage site include printed information, signage, exhibits, videotapes, websites and guides etc.