HND Assignment help for Tourist destination

Tourist destination

Table of Contents

Introduction. 2

LO 1 Understand the scope of key UK and worldwide tourist destinations. 3

P1.1- analyse main tourist destinations and generators of the world in terms of visitor numbers and income generation. 3

P1.2- Analyze statistics to determine tourism destination trends and predict future trends. 7

LO 2. Understand the cultural, social and physical features of tourist destinations. 7

P2.1- Analyse the cultural, social and physical features of the worldwide tourist Destination selected by you explaining their appeal to tourists. 7

P2.2- Compare features of a tourist destination in a developing country and leading tourist Destinations  8

LO3.  Understand how the characteristics of destinations affect their appeal to tourists. 9

P3.1 Compare the appeal of current leading tourist destinations with that of currently developing tourist destinations. 9

P3.2- Evaluate how characteristics of a tourist destination affect its appeal 10

LO 4. Understand issues likely to affect the popularity of tourist destinations. 12

P4.1 Analyze issues that affects the popularity of tourist destinations. 12

P4.2 Discuss the potential for responsible tourism to enhance the host community at the worldwide tourist destination selected by you. 13

Conclusion. 14

References. 14

 

 

Introduction

Tourism is one of the fastest growing industries in the world and UK is no exception to it wherein tourism has high contribution in the economic growth of the country. Scope of tourism has increased in the recent year with several factors such as higher disposable income; lifestyle changes and higher number of young population are driving the growth in the industry. Present paper would evaluate the tourism destinations and their characteristics. Below learning objectives would be fulfilled through present paper:

LO 1 Understand the scope of key UK and worldwide tourist destinations

LO 2. Understand the cultural, social and physical features of tourist destinations

LO3.  Understand how the characteristics of destinations affect their appeal to tourists

LO 4. Understand issues likely to affect the popularity of tourist destinations

Each of the learning objectives would be based on the specific situation given in the context of tourism destination. First learning objective would require acting as tour operator and producing challenges faced in tourist destinations such as UK and worldwide. In second learning objective further research would be carried by considering the scenario in first learning objective. Third learning objective would require acting as the employee of signature (luxurious tour department of Thomas Cook) and investigate into new and emerging tour destination. In the fourth learning objective report would be prepared by selecting a famous ecotourism destination.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LO 1 Understand the scope of key UK and worldwide tourist destinations

This task would explore the scope of various tourism destinations including UK and other worldwide tourist destinations in terms of tourism generating and tourism receiver countries. Also statistics pertaining to the future trend would also be examined in context to the global tourism as an industry.

P1.1- analyse main tourist destinations and generators of the world in terms of visitor numbers and income generation

Tourist receiver country can be defined as the country which is selected by the tourists for their visit. For example, if tourists select to visit Spain then this would be the tourist received country. France is the major tourist receiver country in the world with highest number of incoming tourist every year (Porter, 2014). Tourism generator country would be one from which tourism generated e.g. in case tourists are coming from USA then it would be tourist generating country. Germany is the biggest tourist generating country as highest number of tourist goes for global destinations every year.

Below statistics can be considered for tourism receiving countries:

Rank Country Regional market Number visited in 2010 Number visited in 2009 Change 2009 to 2010
1 France Europe 76.8 m 76.8 m 0.0%
2 USA America 59.7 m 55.0 m 8.7%
3 China Asia 55.7 m 50.9 m 9.4%
4 Spain Europe 52.7 m 52.2 m 1.0%
5 Italy Europe 43.6 m 43.2 m 0.9%
6 UK Europe 28.1 m 28.2 m -0.1%
7 Turkey Europe 27.0 m 25.5 m 5.9%
8 Germany Europe 26.9 m 24.2 m 10.9%
9 Malaysia Asia 24.6 m 23.6 m 3.9%
10 Mexico America 22.4 m 21.5 m 4.4%

Table 1: Showing the statistics for tourist receiving countries (Source: Streeter, 2012)

Income generated from the tourist receipt in these countries can be given as under, incomes generated in these countries have been ranked from top to bottom.

Rank Country Region Amount (USD billion)
1 USA America 103.5
2 Spain Europe 52.5
3 France Europe 46.3
4 China Asia 45.8
5 Italy Europe 38.8
6 Germany Europe 34.7
7 United Kingdom Europe 30.4
8 Australia Oceania 30.1
9 Hong Kong Asia 23.0
10 Turkey Europe 20.8

Table 2: Showing income generated to tourist receiving countries (Source: Syratt, 2013)

As shown through table 1 and table 2 above that France is the major tourist receiving countries while USA is on top in terms of getting highest amount of receipts from tourism activities. The major reason for France to be at the top of list is basically the fashion trends and excellence in architectural design due to which high number of tourist visit to France every year. USA stands at second position in tourist number which may be mainly due to the long distance of USA from major tourist generating countries and highly expensive visits to the USA (Hall, 2012).

UK is at the 6th position in terms of number of tourist coming in the country while holds 7th position for receipts made by the tourist activities. UK is famous for its attraction tourist spots and London contains highest number of tourist spots and known as the busiest city in the world. Looking at the London example of House of Parliament can be taken which is the famous building made in 1840 after the last building destroyed by fire. Similarly, tourist spots such as Buck House, London Eye and Science museum are among the biggest crowd pullers in the country.

Rank Country Expenditure (USD Million) Market share Population (million) Per capita expenditure (USD)
1 Germany 81.2 8.5 77.7 952
2 United States 74.1 8.2 75.5 244
3 China 43.7 6.0 1341 41
4 UK 50.1 5.3 48.6 780
5 France 38.5 4.3 34.9 625
6 Canada 24.2 3.2 29.5 866
7 Japan 25.1 3.0 27.9 219
8 Italy 27.9 2.9 27.1 449
9 Russia 20.9 2.9 26.5 189
10 Australia 17.6 2.5 25.5 1014

Table 3: Showing the statistics for tourist generating countries (Source: Swarbrooke, 2009)

As shown through table 3 above that Germany is the leading tourist generating country which is mainly due to the reason that Germany has biggest economy in Europe with 4th largest economy in the world as well. United States being the biggest economy in world stands at second position in terms of tourist generating countries. United Kingdom stays at 4th rank in terms of tourist generating countries as UK is 7th largest economy in the world. Per capita income of UK stands at $39604 and people spends heavily on their lifestyle. Another major reason for high number of tourist generation is 28 days of holidays granted by government per human resource.  

P1.2- Analyze statistics to determine tourism destination trends and predict future trends

During last decade tourism has grown all around the world and countries around the world are generating high amount of revenue through tourism activities. China, USA, France, Italy and UK are among the major countries responsible for the tourism activities. Exploring the trend of tourism in UK it can be said that number of tourists are increasing day by day for each of the tourist destination in UK. London is one of the most popular tourist destinations in UK with 16.7 million tourists visiting the city in year 2013 followed by Edinburgh and Manchester with 14.2 million and 9.11 million tourists (Butler & Pearce, 2009). The major reason for high number of tourists in London is the availability of educational institutes, business locations and historic monuments. Further government in UK is supporting the tourism activities looking into the revenue generated and number of jobs supported by tourism in UK. Further with increasing spending power of consumers and lifestyle it can be said that trend of tourism is favorable in UK and there would be significant growth in tourism sector of UK.

In recent time Olympics and Paralympics games have provided as a major source of attraction for the tourists coming in UK. Similar, events in future also would help in order to attract large number of tourist in England. Looking into the futuristic figures London would witness more than 32 million tourists out of which 18 million tourists would be from the international origin contributing to high source of foreign income. Looking into the major tourism generating markets it can be predicted that in year 2015 Latin America would be the biggest market with 9.5% of the share followed by Asia Pacific with the share of 8.2%. In coming time Asia and Africa have evolved as major tourism spot wherein African countries are offering ecotourism and cultural tourism activities. Asian countries such as India, Dubai, China, Malaysia, Thailand and Japan are being visited by the visitors for their architectural excellence, heritage value and culture.

LO 2. Understand the cultural, social and physical features of tourist destinations

P2.1- Analyse the cultural, social and physical features of the worldwide tourist Destination selected by you explaining their appeal to tourists

Physical

For the present task London has been selected as the tourist destination for which cultural, social and physical features would be analyzed. At present London is known as the most visited place in UK due to the presence of educational institutes and historic monuments contributing high number of tourist in the city every year from domestic as well as foreign origin. Looking at the tourism statistics it can be said that London has been visited by more than 16.7 million people in last year which contributes 12 billion dollar of revenue from the tourism activities. Hence tourism activities are considered as the major economic driver in London (Gartner, 2006). Tourism activities do not generate revenue in isolation but also add revenue to other industries such as construction, transportation, aviation, hotel and food industry etc. More than 0.2 million people are employed in the tourism activities through direct or indirect ways. Further economic development through tourism activities would increase in coming time due to the efforts made by the government in UK for promoting tourism industry through online methods. Tourism in London is also important due to the social benefits perspective and tourists like the social perspective of tourism. For example, tourists in London are a source of peace, cultural and heritage. Tourism industry proves beneficial for the local community in London as they support the local businesses and jobs.

Social and cultural

Socio-cultural benefit from the tourism industry is in terms of the seasonal employment offered by tourism industry but it can spoil the lifestyle of people looking for the permanent job. In order to resolve issue of temporary jobs through tourism it is important to attract tourists for the education, research and medical so that around the year tourism activities are going on London and people can get the permanent jobs in tourism sector. Looking from the cultural and heritage aspect craft and design market is expected to grow in the country which would enhance the cultural significance for tourism activities in the country. Along with craft and design industry behavioural values would be enhanced for London among the national and international tourists coming to visit London. Environmental impacts for tourism in London would be both positive and negative wherein for developing business opportunities natural destinations would be destroyed while focus would be towards preservation of natural destinations so as to enhance revenue generated through eco tourism and heritage tourism activities (Saayman & Saayman, 2006). Pollution and waste discharge would be among the major negative environmental impacts for the tourism activities.   

P2.2- Compare features of a tourist destination in a developing country and leading tourist Destinations

Some of the key features for the tourism destinations which can be compared between a developing tourism destination and developed tourism destination such as UK would include branding, purpose of tourism, infrastructure and management of historic tourism destinations. India has been selected as the developing country and Taj Mahal is taken as the major tourist destination in the country. UK is considered as the tourist destination in developed country and comparison would be done between the two tourist destinations.

Comparing from the infrastructure point of view it can be said that UK is having much better road, aviation and water infrastructure which is one of the major motivation for the tourists to come and visit UK as compared to the average infrastructure facilities offered in India. Further government in India is focusing on development of infrastructure so as to enhance revenue from the tourism activities which might lead to the favourable trend in tourism industry in coming time (Du Plessis et al, 2005). In terms of branding UK is considered as the big premium brand as compared to the Indian tourism destinations due to lack of promotion, lack of funds and lack of initiatives taken by government to promote their tourist destinations.

Purpose of tourism in India is leisure and research on the popular tourist destinations such as Taj Mahal while UK is considered as the tourist destination with multiple tourists propose such as education, medical, business, leisure and entertainment etc. Hence due to multiple purposes for visit there would be round the year tourism activities and higher number of tourists visits in UK as compared to the India.

LO3.  Understand how the characteristics of destinations affect their appeal to tourists

P3.1 Compare the appeal of current leading tourist destinations with that of currently developing tourist destinations

In order to compare the leading tourist destination with the developing tourists’ destinations example of London and Costa Rica has been taken. Both the tourist destinations are having similar characteristics but in present context comparison would be done based on their appeal to the tourists across the world. United Kingdom is one of the top destinations in the world with more than 28.1 million people coming to UK every year for several purposes. Costa Rica is located in Central America and rank 5th in terms of the environmental sustainability. Some of the major tourist destinations which can be visited in Costa Rica would include Montverde cloud forest, Drake Bay, Arenal Volcano and Antonio national park etc (Mbaiwa, 2004).

Comparing the two tourist destinations it can be revealed that both Costa Rica and London are having great biodiversity and unique landscape. Costa Rica appeals to the tourists who are looking for the exotic tourist destination having beaches and flora & fauna. In comparison to this United Kingdom is the tourist destination which appeals to the tourists looking for The British Isles, Lake District and Scottish mountain etc.  Costa Rica is appealing for its Spanish culture while United Kingdom appeals with its wide variety of literature from Byron, Shakespeare and Milton etc. In addition to this London is home for the classic music such as the Royal opera house, Royal Albert hall and theatre etc. In addition to this, London appeals to the tourists for museum, historic architecture and library etc. Looking into the comparison for the infrastructure supporting tourism activities it can be said that Costa Rica is having much lower quality of transportation with bad road transport as compared to the London which is one of the best city in world in term of the road, aviation and water transportation.   

London is having one of the finest infrastructures which can be considered as the driving force for large number of tourists coming in London. Crime rate is another major force which determines the footfall for the tourists in two cities, crime rate is low for the two cities but London has much better task force which is not the case for Costa Rica. In terms of the environmental protection Costa Rica secures 5th place while London comes at 9th place in terms of environmental protection. Hence analyzing the entire scenario for the two countries it can be said that developed countries such as UK are having features such as infrastructure, government initiatives and marketing for the tourist destinations which help tourists to know about the tourist destination and create positive attitude among tourists for visiting particular tourist destination which is not present in case of the developing countries and their destinations such as Costa Rica (Harrington et al, 2003).

P3.2- Evaluate how characteristics of a tourist destination affect its appeal

There are several characteristics which are considered by the tourist in order to assess its appeal and below are the major characteristics of the tourist destinations appealing to the tourists coming to that destination:

  • Crime rate is one of the major determinants for the tourist and lower crime rate would appeal to higher tourists coming to a particular tourist destination. Considering the case of London crime rate is quite low but pick pockets target visitors in London in streets such as Brighton resort and Oxford street etc.
  • Publicity and sales promotion made by the stakeholders of the tourism industry in a country would have positive impact on the tourism inflow in the country and an example of this can be considered from the recent example of Olympic and Paralympics games held in year 2012 in London. Due to efficient promotional campaign developed for the Olympic and Paralympics events there was high tourist inflow in London (Pizam, 2012).
  • For enhancing product and service lifecycle for tourism activities in London it is important to offer involvement from the higher authorities so that better customer services are provided to the tourists coming from domestic and foreign origin. In addition to this, information centres are made, maps are provided and current location tracking devices are provided to the tourists. For example, one of the website developed to support tourists in London named londontourism.ca contains all required maps, information for railways station, airport and other required information for the tourists coming to London.
  • Economic impacts need to be explored so as to assess the overall impact on the tourism activities and it was revealed that increasing inflation and higher currency prices in London have made negative impact on the overall tourism activities as tourists spending power would be quite low. Expansion of Heathrow airport leads to increase of entry fee which gave extra burden on tourists reducing their spending power.
  • Political instability and terrorism activities would be having negative impact on the tourist inflow in a country and London is considered as one of the most politically stable countries with lesser chances of terrorism attacks which have helped UK to enhance tourist inflow in the country.
  • Over commercialization of the tourist destination may have negative impact on the tourists coming from domestic and international origin due to which not only tourists would be affected but the local people would not be benefited through the tourist activities in London (Deloitte, 2008).

Hence looking into the important factors creating appeal for a tourist destination it can be said that London is properly managing its appeal towards tourists due to which there is continuous inflow of tourists in London and this trend is expected to remain in future as well.

LO 4. Understand issues likely to affect the popularity of tourist destinations

P4.1 Analyze issues that affects the popularity of tourist destinations

There are numerous factors affecting the popularity of a tourist destination and in context to London below factors can be highlighted;

  • Tourism leakage is one of the factors which adversely impact the tourism industry in local area. More than 80% of the tourism revenue goes to the airline and hotel industry which does not count to the local businesses for the tourism industry. Average leakage has been determined at 40 to 50% in context to UK for all goods and services demanded in the country. Leakages of revenue to the hotel and aviation industry local businesses are not enthusiastic towards tourists and would not participate in enhancing tourism activities. Due to this tourists may not have a pleasant experience during their trip as local businesses and local people may not support much. Hence, this would impact on the popularity of the tourism activities.
  • Enclave tourism is another important factor affecting the tourism activities in UK as all inclusive packages would impact upon the local businesses such as pubs, food centre and local accommodations near to the tourist destinations. Such package designed by the tour operators would be highly expensive in nature would provide the image of expensive tourism destination. These inclusive packages would again harm the local business and thus the popularity as well.
  • Increasing inflation rate and high exchange rate for the currency would have negative impact for the tourists coming from foreign destinations. For example, cost of transportation has enhanced in UK due to environmental effects as road fuel duty of £53 per litre has been imposed which would ask more spending from consumers thereby reducing popularity.
  • Social riots in a country may have bad image among the tourist mind and may affect the tourism activities adversely. Social riots and political instability in year 2011 affected the brand image of UK among tourists adversely which has impacted upon the tourist arrival in the country.
  • Increasing attacks on tourists in UK for year 2005 and 2011 had negative impact on the tourist activities due to which tourist inflow reduced in UK. This would create issue of safety for the tourists coming from international locations to UK.
  • High inflows of tourists in London also have negative impact on the city in terms of pollution and waste dump. All these activities would lead to adverse impact on the environment from the tourist activities hence tourist inflow would reduce if environmental conditions are not proper in the tourist destination (Butler & Pearce, 2009).
  • Another impact of tourist activities would be on the investment policy of government as with the increasing investment of government into the infrastructure development and other tourism activities may have significant impact on the other key areas where this investment should have been done. Development in other key areas such as education and healthcare may reduce leading to negative impact on the health and social life for people living in London.

Considering the above factors it can be revealed that these factors may have significant impact over the popularity of a tourist destination. Popularity of tourist destination may reduce due to accumulation of the negative factors but UK is able to maintain its appeal appropriately among the tourists around the world. It is important for the tourism stakeholders to assess above mentioned factors so that negative impact of above factors can be avoided and positive inflow of tourists can be developed in a country.

P4.2 Discuss the potential for responsible tourism to enhance the host community at the worldwide tourist destination selected by you.

Responsible tourism activities would require the stakeholders of tourism to avoid harmful impacts of tourism on economy, society, cultural and social life in the local area. Harmful impacts would be reduced so that overall benefits of tourism can be maximized for the particular tourist destination. Tourism industry is responsible to employ large number of people directly or indirectly and these results of tourism activities are sustainable in nature. Several heritage organizations are funded through the tourism organizations in order to preserve natural and historic sites e.g. Palace of Westminster, New Lanark, Maritime Greenwich and Giant’s Causeway etc. Responsible tourism activities in London would create higher employment opportunities and revenue through tourism activities from the tourists coming from domestic and international origin.

United world tourism organizations are promoting tourism activities in order to enhance revenue through generation from tourism activities and supporting local businesses. Responsible tourism in UK would also support some of the key issues of tourism such as child pornography and drugs etc (Lawton & Weaver, 2006). In order to implement responsible tourism activities in London there are several organizations working such as ECPAT which encourage tour operators to implement code of conduct against child pornography and drugs etc. Ecotourism is having emerging trend in present age and would consider factors such as building environmental awareness, financial support for preservation and positive experience for the tourists coming for ecotourism. There are more than 28 natural and world heritage site in UK for tourism such as The New Forest, Green Dragon, UNESCO world heritage site and business scheme for green tourism etc. All these sites are committed towards responsible tourism in UK. UK at present is advancing towards the responsible tourism activities but responsible tourism activities in the country are aimed at promoting natural beauty and supporting local businesses in the country.

Conclusion

From the present paper tourist destinations and their different perspectives such as scope, factors affecting tourist destinations and factors affecting appeal & popularity of the tourist destination have been examined in the present context. It has been revealed that UK is one of the major tourism receiving country and London is among the major cities responsible for inflow of tourists. Further looking into the demography of tourists, increasing spending income and lifestyle of the consumers it is expected that tourism scope would increase in coming time. Social, physical and environmental factors affect the inflow of tourist in a country and there is lot of difference in the appeal of developing and developed countries. There are several factors which affect the popularity and appeal for a tourist destination and it is important for the stakeholders in the tourism industry to manage these factors so that popularity and appeal to the domestic and international tourists can be enhanced towards the particular tourist destinations.    

References

  • Lawton, L & Weaver, D (2006). Tourism Management, 3rd edn, John Wiley & Sons Australia, Milton, QLD, pp 238-303
  • Hall, C.M (2012), Introduction to Tourism: Dimensions and Issues, 4th edn, Pearson Education Australia, Frenchs Forest, NSW, pp.235-319, 425
  • Butler, R.W & Pearce, D.G (2009). Contemporary Issues in Tourism Development, Routledge, Fetter Lane, London, pp.232-257
  • Gartner, W.C (2006). Tourism Development: Principles, processes, and policies, Thomson Publishing Company, USA, pp.63-187
  • Saayman, A & Saayman, M (2006), ‘Estimating the Economic Contribution of Visitor Spending in the Kruger National Park to the Regional Economy’, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 67-81
  • Du Plessis, C. Saayman, A & Saayman, M (2005), ‘Analysis of spending patterns of visitors of three World Cup Cricket matches in Potchefstroom, South Africa.’, Journal of Sport Tourism, vol. 10, no. 1, pp.211-221
  • Mbaiwa, J.E (2004). ‘The Socio-cultural impacts of Tourism Development in the Okavango Delta, Botswana’, Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, vol. 2, no. 3, pp.163-184
  • Harrington, J. Pickering, C.M & Worboys, G (2003). ‘Environmental Impacts of Tourism on the Australian Alps Protected Areas’, Mountain Research and Development, vol. 23, no. 3, pp.247-254
  • Pizam, A (2012). ‘Tourism and crime: is there a relationship?’, Journal of Travel Research, vol. 20, no. 3, pp.7-10
  • Deloitte (2008). The economic case for the Visitor Economy[online], Available from: http://www.deloitte.com/assets/Dcom-UnitedKingdom/Local%20Assets/Documents/UK_THL_VisitorEconomy_Sept08.pdf
  • Porter, M, E., (2014). On Competition, updated and expended edition. 5th edition. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing. 
  • Streeter, P. W. (2012). Cyber crime &Warfare: All That Matters. In P. W. Streeter, Cyber Crime & Warfare:All That Matters. (p. 63). Washington: Hodder & Stoughton.
  • Syratt, G. (2013). Manual of Travel Agency Practice (3rd edition) Oxford: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann

 

 

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