Assignment Guide – HRMS
– Course: HND Travel &ourism [Level 4]
– Subject: Human Resource Mgt. for Service Industries
– Learner’s Name(s):
– Student Number:
– Lecturer: Olumide Ologan
Human resource management refers to the policies and practices involved in carrying out the ‘people’ or human resource aspects of a management position (Randhawa Gurpreet 2007, p.2).
Human Resource Management is an essential practice for any business that is willing to increase the productivity and performance of its employees. The HRM is generally referred and concerned about the way people or employees are treated within the organization and decide the method of behaviour with the employees. HRM departments are commonly responsible for a number of tasks in an organization such as recruitment process, training of the recruited employees and development, performance analysis and appraisal. HR department also handles the way an organization behaves or keeps its relations with other organization including the competition and suppliers.
This report focuses on the practice of Human resource management within the UKCBC Hotel business entity. The report discusses the ways of handling the employees to improve the turnover.
Human Resource management is primarily used to manage and maintain the human resource of an organization whether product or service organization. The management of people is done through following proper management of policies and procedures in the organization, whereas the primarily concern of the organization is to hire more and more people with the use of training and development in the organization which helps the organization in achieving the goals of the organization. Human Resource Management is very important for all the types of organization whether goods manufacturing organization or service organization. Human Resource Management is the quintessence of any business or service industry as managing the human resources of an organization is essential, the employees being the asset of the organization are important to be cared. It helps the organization in managing the human dimension in the organization and management.
Human Resource Management includes job analysis, job planning, and organizational planning of requirement of human resource, selection of personnel for the job, recruitment of the right candidate for the job, training and development of the personnel according to the requirements of the organization. Training and selection is also one of the suitable measures being used to motivate the employee that they are an important part of the organization and are trained according to the latest requirements on the job being performed by them. (Introduction to human resource Management and environment, 2009).
In this report we are going to discuss the hotel and its recruitment process. In this report we will analyse all the factors related to human resource management in the light of the case study which is given which is a fictitious hotel UKCBC hotel. In this report we will discuss different recruitment process and the need and role of different training and development process and how they can be applied in the present hotel industry.
LO 1 Understand human resource management
P 1.1 Analyse the role and purpose of human resource management in a selected service industry.
Human Resource Management treats labour as a social capital or resource rather than a variable cost i.e. proactive rather than reactive ant it has now acquired a strategic focus. Human Resource or the people at work are considered as vital resource of any organization and their management, as a process concerned basically with the management of people. Thus it can be stated that Human Resource Management is the reincarnation of Personnel Management. (Human Resource Management, 2009)
The human elements of the enterprise by estimating the resourcefulness of the people of the industry as estimating their knowledge, creative abilities, skills, talent and potentiality for the effectiveness.
The role of Human Resource Management in UKCBC Hotel is:
- Employment Concerns: – the main concern of the organization is to employ more and trained employees in their organization so that it helps in achieving the goals and objectives of the organization. The HTM department in UKCBC Hotel has in this endeavour is to recruit good quality employees and train them to become great employees who get pleasure from serving others, achieving a high level of customer service. (Reynolds, 2009)
- Employees Relations: – the main concern of HR department in the service organization is due to risk-management role this is a per-determined responsibility of HR to foster a safe work environment, which in turn influences culture of the organization. In UKCBC Hotel it is very important to maintain the balance in the organization in terms of working environment and culture of the organization this makes the people working in the organization comfortable and contributes more to the organization. (Brunot, 2010)
- Premeditated: – means planning in advance about the type of people required and amount of people required by the organizations. In UKCBC Hotels as the organization enlarge or contract which means the organization requires more and more employees or reduces the number of employees. A huge and assorted staff may also create opportunities for aggravation or other issues requiring interference by the HR department. HR staff is expected to know employment law and to ensure the organization adheres to the law. (Reynolds, 2009)
The purposes of Human Resource Management in UKCBC Hotels are as follows: –
- The HRM department helps the Hotel industry to achieve its goals by employing the best working force for their organization.
- HRM helps the Hotels in training and development of their workforce, this helps in developing the interpersonal skills of the employees because it is very important for the Hotel industry to work in groups. (Human Resource Management and the Tourism and Hospitality Industry, 2006)
- To help in maintaining ethical policies and behaviour inside and outside the hotel industry.
- To maintain the level of legality in the Hotel and morality in working of different departments.
- To augment the job satisfaction and self-actualization by assisting and encouraging each and every employee to analyse their potential fully. (Hoque, 2010).
Organizations have started to realize that their success is dependent on their ability to attract, develop, and retain the talented employees (Sims Ronald 2007, p.4).
While any big organization will surely look for a proper Human Resource Management, many small businesses ignore the need of human resource management in the organization and focus more on the personal management. This strategy occurs in small businesses because these businesses generally do not have big pool of employees that requires management through a separate department. Such businesses are generally run by family chains; therefore, the personal management is more important in this kind of business entity.
The UKCBC Hotel is a business entity that is completely different than any of the small business enterprise. There is a large pool of employees to manage without having a dedicated department to handle such queries and issues. Employees are the key asset in this kind of business as they become the face of the company when interacting with the customers. Hence, unlike the small businesses, UKCBC Hotel require a dedicated human resource department.
Function of the human resource management
A human resource department within the UKCBC Hotel organization is responsible for a number of different tasks. The sole aim of this department is to manage the company policies with the employees and to handle the issues that may arise in the business to improve the employee turnover. Following listed are some of the key responsibilities that are practiced by the human resource department in the UKCBC Hotel organizational structure:
- Employee Recruitment: The human resource department in the UKCBC Hotel organization is responsible for managing relations with the employees and this process starts right away with the recruitment process. Every candidate that applies for a career in UKCBC Hotel organization must go through the HR round of interview before getting the job. HRM assesses the qualities of the candidate and suitability for the organization.
- Managing policies: As a department that is fully focused on handling the employees within the organization, HRM is also concerned with the development of UKCBC Hotel’s policies that affects the employees directly or indirectly.
- Performance analysis and appraisal: Increasing the performance of the employees require finding the best performing employees within the organization and recognizing them to motivate other employees as well. A performance appraisal is carried out by the HR department of UKCBC Hotel.
- Talent search: HRM is responsible to find out the talent of people working for the UKCBC Hotel organization and tries to make best use of it for the organization.
The importance of the HRM departments has been increasing in the service based industry like hotels. The main reason behind this is the number of employees in the hotel business. Hotel industry is one industry which still depends a lot on the man power to run its operations while many other industries have replaced a large chunk of their man power with latest technology and machines (Nickson, 2013, pp. 96).
The UKCBC hotel is a start-up hotel which is established at West End, London. The UKCBC hotel is a state of art work and it is designed completely keeping the requirements of premium clients in mind. That is why the hotel have many luxury services which are not provided by any other hotel in this area and this has become the reason of great success for this hotel in the short time.
Selection and Recruitment:
There are 3 main parts of the UKCBC hotel which are – 100 luxury rooms, a bar which contains the #top brands of liquor from all around the world and a coffee shop with lots of varieties in flavour. Since UKCBC has 100 rooms with luxury facilities, there is the need of at least 600 employees in the hotel to care of the daily business of the hotel.
The HRM department at UKCBC is responsible for the management of these 600 employees. Since UKCBC is still in the process of development, the hotel is looking for the new employees. This responsibility is left with the HRM departments where the HRs of the hotel look for the experienced employees as well as the fresh talent according to the requirements of the business. The next role of the HRM department is to arrange the induction for the newly joined employees. The induction process helps the new employees in understanding the company policies and processes. It also makes the employees familiar with other members of their new team.
Training and Development:
After the recruitment, the next responsibility of the HRM department is arrange various training programs for the employees who do not have much experience of the hotel business. Sometimes HRM departments also arranges the training programs for the existing employees of the UKCBC hotel, to make them aware of the new ways of handling the old processes and let them know the changes in the market and the hotel industry.
The cessation of the employees is also the purpose of the HRM department. When an employee who is experienced and crucial for the hotel decides to quit the job, HR calls that employee to discuss the reason for quitting and tries to change the mind of the employee (Hoque, 1999, pp. 441). If the employee is very much important for the business, HR try every possible measure to retain him which includes the pay hike, promotion, switching the department and other benefits.
In a nutshell, it could be said that the role and purpose of the HRM department at UKCBC hotel is to keep an eye on the human resources of the company from their joining to the hotel to their parting from the company.
P 1.2 Justify a human resources plan based on an analysis of supply and demand for a selected service industry.
Human resource planning is a cumbersome process and the therefore it should be carried out with the much care and attention as the other departments and the processes of the organization are considered important. The process in its basic form deals with the analysis of the proper demand and supply of the human resources for the organization. In UKCBC hotel, the analysis for the demand and supply means the supply of the staff for the hospitality and the catering as well as for the management and administration etc. It is so because the hotel is not operating individually rather it also has a restaurant and a café bar in the main London market. The analysis of the demand and supply means that what are the requirements of the human resources in the organization and the supply is the arrangement and the fulfillment of the gaps for the employees. The abilities required and acquired are the demand and supply in the organization.
For the UKCBC, we will need the following staff
|Human Resource Plan for UKCBC|
|For the normal days||· 12 cleaners|
· 2 shift managers
· 4 porters
· 2 chefs
· 4 kitchen porters
· 8 waiters/waitresses
· 3 receptionists
· 1 customer service representative
· 1 manager of the restaurant
· 1 operations manager
|In case of the high demands and the seasonal events||· 12 cleaners (4 more cleaners) i.e. 16 cleaners|
· 2 shift managers
· 4 porters
· 2 chefs
· 4 kitchen porters (1 more porter) i.e. 5 porters
· 8 waiters/waitresses (2 more waiters) i.e. 10 waiters
· 3 receptionists
· 1 customer service representative (1 more) i.e. 2 customer service representatives
· 1 manager of the restaurant
· 1 operations manager
The employees adjusted for the increased demands are the temporary employees and they are rained enough to meet the need for the changing demands of the season.
All of the employees at UKCBC hotel whether the permanent or the temporary are given the opportunity at the start of the job which is known as induction in order to understand the standards and the awareness regarding the policies and the procedures at UKCBC hotel. A separate handbook is designed by UKCBC hotel for the employees to give them the training and the learning opportunity in the hotel. In this way the poorly working employees can be reduced and they are trained and equipped with enough skills.
There are various factors affecting the supply and demand of the employees in the UKCBC hotel. Some of them are given as follows
UKCBC hotel are demanding more foreign workers as compared to the local nationals because they want to implement the diversity policy in the organization as well as the VISA and the immigration policies of the UK are not that much stricter so the employees can move in between the borders and they can come to UK from Romania, Bulgaria and Croatia, Italy and Spain for the work purposes and this industry also encourages the jobs for the fresh candidates who are newly graduated because they have fresh minds and they can adapt to the current needs for the technology and advancements.
UKCBC hotel is following the (Health and Safety at Work Act 1974) for the grant of the healthy and the safe environment to the employees for work. At hotels there may be various risks related to the job and they are all reduced by taking into account the policies given in the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974. The employee’s health can be made secure with this.
In the selection of the employees, much costs are incurred and these days almost all of the economies of the world are going through the financial crisis so the UKCBC hotel has preferred to select the permanent employees for the executive posts only and in order to get rid of the tax and the national insurances etc, mostly temporary workers are employed over there.
UKCBC hotel is going to take advantage of the newly created trends in travel and tourism industry and the most importantly it is not going to take on the permanent workers rather the self-employment contract workers from abroad are selected.
Human Resource Planning is defined as a process of forecasting as organisation’s future demand for, and supply of, the right type of people in the right number. Human Resource planning is also called as Man Power Planning which states that to see whether the person to whom the work is assigned are capable to do it or not. The ability and the capabilities of employees changes with the change of time and circumstances. Therefore, the management should study the abilities of its employees and plan the capabilities of its power accordingly. Human Resource Management prepares the Man Power Planning in an enterprise. The factors on which the Human Resource Planning is determined are as follows: –
- Technological Changes
- Estimation of Demand and Supply
- Newer Laws
- Organisational Changes
- Environmental Changes
- Training and Development of Employees
- Peer Pressure
- Demographic Changes
- Interpersonal Skills of the employees of UKCBC Hotels (Lunenburg, 2012)
- Effective Utilization of Human Resource: – Human Resource planning improves the utilization of Human Resource in UKCBC Hotels. It also helps in proper and timely utilization of technological progress by providing for retraining of the existing employees and recruitment of new capable employees by UKCBC Hotels.
- Coping with changing Scenario: – Human Resource Department enables the UKCBC Hotels to cope with changes in various forces such as markets, products, technologies and government regulations. These changes often generates alterations or modifications in Job content, skills demands, and number and type of personnel.
- Creation of awareness about effective utilization of technological progress: – human Resource planning makes the employees known about the different utilization of Human Resources. Ultimately, it facilitates to reduce or even control wastage of human resources and also to judge the effectiveness of human resources policies and programme of management.
- Protection of weaker section: – government provide productions to the weaker section of the society and also focuses on women empowerment. In this connection UKCBC Hotels can employ a well-conceived human resource planning which protects the interests of such groups or classes.
- Effective Employee Development Programme: – the employee development programme helps the UKCBC Hotels in identifying the talents, abilities and motives of the employees, as well as it helps UKCBC in identifying their objectives and goals. This can make the human resource planning of UKCBC effective.
The Human Resource Planning is developed with the estimation of demand and supply of the services rendered by UKCBC Hotels. HRP helps UKCBC in knowing the number of employees required by them, it helps the organisation in defining its planning regarding to employ a specific amount of staff in the organisation. The demand of the organisation increases and results in increase in the requirement of workforce in the UKCBC. This helps the organisation in delivering the best quality services to its customers, the overall performance and experience of the customers will increase and will automatically result in increase in the demand of UKCBC and the demand of workforce will also increase. The supply of Services depends on internal as well as external source. The internal means the employees who are already working in the organisation and external means the employee outside UKCBC. UKCBC can conduct an analysis of the workforce requirement and can fulfil this by promoting the already employed employees and recruiting newer employees on the places vacant (Lunenburg, 2012).
Stages in Planning HR
For a quality enhancement in the human resource management, the organization requires better planning and a sound strategy that is employed for the human resources in the organization. This is essential for the business of any size and it is true for UKCBC Hotel as well. A good human resource plan is the one which allows the organization to achieve maximum output with the available resources.
The human resource department at UKCBC Hotel can assess the planning of human resources in two stages:
- Short term policies for human resources: This stage of planning focuses on the immediate need of the organization from the human resources that are working for the company. This approach also concerns with the ability of the organization to manage the issues with the employees. Solution of the current organizational needs from the HR and also handling the current issues and problems faced by the employees are part of the short term policies.
- Long term policies: Long term human resource policies are the ones which are concerned with the long term objectives of the organization. This includes taking care of the training of the employees within the organization for improving their performance. Deciding the policies about the management of human resources which affects the turnover time of an employee. Such policies also include performance analysis and finding the talent of employees to improve the overall productivity. These policies are responsible and designed to handle the objectives of the UKCBC Hotel organization in a longer duration of time.
HR Planning at UKCBC could be divided in the following 5 categories:
- Assessing Human Resource
The purpose of assessing human resource at UKCBC is to get to know the internal and external environment which could affect the business. The external environment consists of the market fluctuations, economic conditions of the country and the competition in the market. The internal environment of the UKCBC hotel is defined by the processes and policies of the company and their implementation.
- Demand Forecasting
This is a very important function of the HR at UKCBC. Since UKCBC is a new hotel, the unknown and unexpected requirements of the human resources will keep coming.
- Supply Forecasting
It is the responsibility of the HRM department to maintain a pipeline of skilled employees who could be use when required without any specific training.
- Matching Demand and Supply
An efficient HRM department always takes care of the balance between the demand and supply of the resources. If the supply matches with the demand but not wasting many resources in waiting on bench, the overhead of the business decreases accordingly.
- Action Plan
In this human resource practice, the HR of the UKCBC hotel define the future plans to meet the demand of the business and a methodology to provide sufficient supply is demonstrated.
LO 2 Understand the effect of employee relations and employment law on services industries businesses
P2.1 Assess the current state of employment relations in a selected service industry.
Employee relations basically refer to the state of employee-employer relationship. For a business to run successfully, it is essential that this relation remains in harmony. It is important for an employer to understand the needs of the employees while it is the duty of the employees to respect their employer and work towards achieving the organizational goals. A harmonized relationship leads to the satisfactory productivity, better sales, motivation and more profits. In addition, the hotel industry is considered to be the labour intensive sector which is described by minimal level of affiliation to trade unions and employer organizations (EiroOnline, 2012)
State of employment relations
Recently, the hotels have lay off thousands, cut the bonuses, fired its employees and cut the worker’s salaries due to high rate of recession. A study conducted by Maritz Research shows that the employee engagement with respect to the hotel industry is low in wide variety of areas. The major reason behind this is that most of the employees work in the hotels which have faced prominent reduction in the workforce in the past 6 months. This consequently shows that the problems that hotels face include lack of unionization, unsatisfactory customer service and lack of trust. The workplace trust among the employees is going down due to mistrust of the seniors, colleagues and immediate supervisors. According to Garlick (2014), there are only 12% of employees in the hospitality industry who consider the leaders of their company to be honest and ethical. Further, only one in ten people have complete trust in the company’s management to make wise decisions at the time of uncertainty. Not just this, it has been concluded by the studies that only 7%-8% of employees have confidence in their employers and belief that they will turn their words into actions. But this is an overall reflection of the employment relations in the entire hotel industry. The results and state of employment relations may vary from one hotel to another.
While talking about UKCBC hotel, the state of employment relations depends upon the HR department. By identifying the factors motivating the employees and with the implementation of motivational programs, the hotel can achieve hundred percent satisfactions of all its employees. The HR department can also analyse whether the employees show difference in factors affecting motivation according to their demographic attributes or not. On the other hand, the HR management must make possible attempts to reduce the lines between the supervisor and the subordinate. The gulf between the seniors and the juniors exists due to lack of communication, misunderstanding and ego gives rise to most of the current organizational issues and lowers down the level of employment relation. So, UKCBC hotel must aim at establishing harmonized employment relations for the future growth of the business.
The term employment relation is related to the relationship between the hotel management and the employees of the hotel. Although the top management is not directly connected with the employees who are at the low level of the hierarchal structure in the company, yet the actions of the top management defines their relationship with the employees. As you know, the owners of the company and the top management is responsible for the development of the company policies related to the human resources of the company, but most of the time they act upon the advice of the HRM department of the company (Gatewood, Feild & Barrick, 2010, pp. 45). It is the HRM department which takes care of the daily problems of the employees and try to solve the issues following the company policies. But there are certain decisions in which the HRM department does not have any say. These decisions are mainly concerned with the maximum salary of the employees. The top management lets the HRs know what they are going to pay for a specific position in the company and it is the duty of the HRs to get employees who could work on that salary.
Sometimes this kind of attitude of the top management becomes the problem for the HR of the company. As discussed in the previous section, the supply of the skilled resources in the market is very low and this has increased the expected salary of the employees. This is the point of conflict between the employees and the HR department. Also, there are certain government rules and regulations which governs the minimum salary and the maximum working hours for the employees, but most of the leaders and owners of the company pay less than the defined salary. Because of this kind of conflicts, the relationship between the management and employees is affected which ultimately results in the loss of the company. An employee who is working on a very small salary will never be motivated towards its job and he will always keep complaining about the tasks assigned to him.
To stop the dictating policies of the top management and the owners of the hotels, employees have formed Unions which takes care of the employee issues. These employee unions are formed with a single aim – the welfare of the human resources of the company. If the union thinks that the management is paying lesser salary than a particular employee is entitled for, they talk with the management to resolve the issue (Baum, 1995, pp. 85). If the demands of the employee union are not met by the management, sometimes the union declares strike in the company which affects he business badly and make the management agree with the demands of the employees.
Although these unions are formed to save employees form the wrong policies of the company, yet there are times when the leaders of the union use their power for personal benefit and threatens the management with strike if their demands are not fulfilled by the company. To handle this kind of situations, government has made some rules and regulations for the employee unions also which must be followed by every union in the hospitality industry.
Collective Bargaining and Employee Unions
The collective bargaining is a process in which a group of people is represented by a leader who is elected by the people in the group. The leader of the group is chosen among the members of the group and he is responsible for the communication with other parties which are relevant to the group. Although there is only one leader of the group, it is not a rule that he has to meet with other parties alone. There might be some other responsible persons in the group who could accompany the leader and help him in raising the issues of the group.
The collective bargaining in the service industry is adopted when the employee unions came into existence. The members of the union are the employees of a specific company and a representative is chosen. The reason for forming the unions in hospitality industry is very simple. Even there are government guidelines to take care of the employees, the owners of the hotels rarely follow them. But when a unions is formed, all the employees of the company are united. Individually they might not have the sufficient power to challenge the decisions of the top management but as a group they could make the top management accept their demands.
Employment relations are defined as “all the possible interconnections and links that are developed in an official or unofficial manner by employees, managers and employee representatives such as trade union officials” (Armstrong; 2006). The employment relations are either the formal or they are made informally. The formal relations are imposed by the statute and they are contractual in nature whereas the informal relationships are formed by the social connections and the psychological frameworks between the employees and the managers. Operations, structures, substance and the parties are the building blocks of the employee relationship model presented by Kessler and Undy (1996).
There is no concept of the trade unionization in the hospitality and the tourism industry because the employees are selected on the temporary basis and they are not supposed to stay for the longer period of time and they are selected especially when the season is on. There are the public unions which can be joined by the workers in order to get more strength and to enhance the negotiation power of the employees with the managers or the employers. The strikes set out by the employees or the other serious issues can be easily dealt with when the employees are in unions rather than when they are alone.
Employees get more empowered with the help of the unionization and increasing the degree of involvement of the employees and the negotiation power increase between the employees and the employers. Unionization is very helpful in the delegation of authority, shaping the structure and the culture of the organization, collective bargaining and cultural promotion etc. The organizations with heavy unionizations can easily be set out to have the bureaucratic structures and the clearer and the descriptive job positions. In the recent figures provided by CIPD, the unionization in the service industry especially the hospitality industry is declining and the figure has greatly decreased between the periods from 1977 to 2007. Although the labour force is not declining yet the unionization is decreasing because there are less permanent employees as compared to the labour force in the previous periods. Collective bargaining is also decreasing day by day with the passage of time because the unionization is losing its importance.
The reason for taking over the temporary employees in the hospitality industry is the presence of the low wage standard in this industry. The employees are given low wages and this is also because of the less skills and abilities of the employees. The employees are not much qualified as well as the position in the hospitality industry is not very standardized and they generally take the fresh graduates in the job. The employees are being selected at one post and then with the increasing demand and the skills of the employees, they are promoted to higher positions in the organization. Unionization is not considered important in this industry generally.
UKCBC hotel has no concept of the unionization or the collective bargaining etc rather the employees are given the consultation with the help of the feedback collected and the complaints received from the employees. With the procedures and the policies in the organization, if the employees are not feeling comfortable, they can report the issues to the direct manager or the HR manager etc. The complaint and the grievance procedure is designed by the UKCBC themselves and they do not demand for the statutory requirements and the procedures etc. the employees are empowered with the help of the delegations and authorities as well as the responsibilities assigned to them. All of these lead to the empowerment of the employees by the other means rather than the unionization and the collective bargaining etc.
P 2.2 Discuss how employment law affects the management of human resources in a selected service industry business.
The management of UKCBC human resources is greatly affected by the employment laws which govern the hotel industry. There are number of laws and regulations which the hotel has to follow in order to keep its functioning smooth and clear in the eyes of law.
Mentioned below are some of the major employment laws:
- Work Act 1974- This act aims at providing complete health and safety at work to all the employees working in the UK. The main features of this act include cooperating with the supervisor/senior/employer to carry out the duties and taking proper care of self and others at the workplace. It also declares that no employee must intentionally get in the way of health and safety. For instance, one must not leave fire doors undone; remove the fire exit signs etc. This act takes the note of all the people working in hotels, restaurants, commercial kitchens, cafes and others related.
- Employment contract- In the UK, the employees usually do not get the ‘employment contract’ before starting with the job or on the first day of work. After joining the work, the employer is bound to offer the contract letter to the employer within two months. The contract must include same terms and conditions which the employee agreed to at the time of hiring. An online letter for the entire crew members can be acknowledged as the written terms of contract.
- Employee discrimination- Employers of all the organizations in the UK do not hold any right to discriminate among the employees. No discrimination is to be made on the basis of belief, disability, colour, race, gender, pregnancy, marital status, ethnicity and maternal leave. Any discrimination made on the basis of age or possessing the membership of trade union is considered illegal (Champs, 2014). In case of any violation, the employees are free to contact the higher authorities.
- Rules of working hours- No employee must be forced to work more than 6 days in a week. The standard working hours for any employee per week in the UK is 48 hours. It is considered to be illegal if any employer forces the employee to sign the document of working more than 48 hours a week. Within a day, an employee must be given a 20 minute break for refreshment and rest (Champs, 2014). At the time of rush or peak hours, a hotel can ask its employees to work little more than the usual working hours only if the employee is comfortable. No employee must be forced or abused for not working overtime.
So, the Human resources management of UKCBC hotel has to keep in mind all the employment laws and treat all the employees equally. Failure to comply with any of the employment laws can make the hotel to pay heavy penalty and punishment.
Employment legislations and the laws are very important and they take into account all the laws and the statutory requirements that are the development in order to protect the rights of the employees, rights of the employers and their representatives etc (Millward et al, 2000). UKCBC will be following the under mentioned legislations for the protection of the employees rights in the organization
- Health and Safety at Work Act 1974
- Employment Relations Act 2004
- Equality Act 2010, Employment Act 2002
- National Minimum Wage Act 1998
- Data Protection Act 1998
- Working Time Regulation 1998
All of the above mentioned laws are the laws protecting the basic human rights of the employees in the organizations and they are used by various other conventions in order to protect the basic rights and to equip them with the health and safety in the organizations and to promote the risk-free environment for the employees. These laws set the duties and the responsibilities of the employees as well as the employers with and for one another and the basic act defining the duties and the responsibilities of the both is the Employment relations Act 2004. They generally include the minimum wage legislations, bargaining reduction legislations and promotion of the rights of the workers etc. UKCBC is also following the same act for the purpose of promoting the rights of the humans and the basic duties of the employers towards the employees.
The UKCBC hotel is also emphasizing on the promotion of the equal opportunity and the diversity approach in the organizations so the various laws followed in this regard are as follows
- Equality Act 2010 and the Equal Pay Act 197
- Race Relations Act 1968
- Sex Discrimination Act 1975
- Disability Discrimination Act 1995
- Employment Equality (Sexual Orientation) Regulations 2003
- Employment Equality (Age) Regulations 2006
Equality act ensures that the workers must not be discriminated on any basis rather they are promoted for being different from one another because the various grounds for the discrimination are the race, ethnicity, religion, gender, sexual orientation, disability, maternity relationships and the age etc. in the UK the employees are avoided to be discriminated on any of these grounds because they are then required to pay heavy fines to the statute for this. UKCBC is also following the equality and the diversity approaches for the promotion of the employees in all of the above mentioned regards and in hotel the diversity of the employees become necessary for the promotion of the various races and the minor groups in the society and in the hospitality industry in general.
Employment Act 2002 and the Employment Rights Act 1996 are dealing the salaries and the wages of the employees and take into consideration the waves of the maternity and the paternity pay being given to the employees. It is also concerning the employment tribunals and the conflict and the dispute management on the issues of the pays and salaries. The maternity leaves and the arrangements of the pays made for the employees during these leaves in the matter of the fact for this act to take into account.
Other legislations also deal with the redundancies and the termination of the employees from the organization reduces the chances for the unfair dismissal and promotes the employees fair treatment and the fair dismissal etc. The complaints of the employees are handled with the help of the grievances and the feedback procedures.
UKCBC hotel will be taking into consideration all of these legislations and the laws for the promotion of the basic rights of the employees and for the incorporation of the employment procedures and policies with the laws and the regulations of the UKCBC hotel.
There are various employment related laws in U.K. which effect the human resource management and departments of any service organisation. UKCBC is working in service industry which means in the hospitality sector and serving more and more people, the various laws are as follows: –
- Employment Law: – employment laws cover the rights of both the employer and the employee. It is also referred to as Labour law, this law states that the employees working in the organisation are treated fairly and have a safe and health working environment. UKCBC is a service sector organisation and it is very important to make the service one of a kind for its customers and it can only be done if the people working in the organisation are motivated and feels them as a part of the organisation. (Rothstein, Rothstein, Craver, Schroeder, Shoben, and Velde’s, 2004)
- Employment Rights Act (1996): – this acts states all the rights related to the employment of an employee. These rights include: –
- Right to safety in working conditions
- Information relating to wages of the employees
- Complaints to employment tribunals.
Ø Determination of complaints.
It is very important for UKCBC to make use of these acts because it helps both the parties’ employer and employees in knowing the rules and regulations determined by the government to which benefits the UKCBC as well as the people working in UKCBC. The delivery of service in very important as it is customer oriented sector and the level of service deliver vary with the number of people involve in the service delivery process, therefore UKCBC is focusing on employment right act (1996), which helps the organisation in maintaining employment relations in their organisation. (Legislation of Government of U.K., 2009)
- Health and Safety: – it is the basic right of every employee to work in safe and healthy environment. All the employers have a constitutional duty towards the safety, health and security of the employees in their organisation. The basic rules which comes under this category are: –
- Fire Safety
- Hazardous Substances
- Clean toilets
Ø Safe drinking water
It is very important for UKCBC to take in consideration of the entire above mentioned category which comes under Health and Safety right of employees. (Advice Guide, 2010)
- Contracts of Employment: – employment contract means that contract which includes all the terms and conditions related to employment of the employee in an organisation. It is very important for the employee to know all the terms and conditions mentioned in this contract because this will helps both the parties in the terms of conflict between them. There are certain elements which are elementary for the existence of this contract, they are: –
Ø The contract should be legal in the eyes of law and should not contain any condition
Ø One party should make offer and existence by the other.
Ø The employment contract should be supported by valuable consideration.
Ø Care should be taken against the parties, thereby having consent with the terms of contract.
Ø For any purpose which is illegal, the contract should not enter into that.
Notice of dismissal: – this act helps the employees in taking legal actions against their employers in case of unfair dismissal of them and their service of the organization. The employees have a legal right as to they can ask their employers to provide them a notice of this dismissal and also a notice time to work in this organization. In UKCBC the organization can ask their employees to work better if they are not able to deliver according to the standards and requirement of their management, but cannot dismiss any employee from the organization and have to provide a legal notice to the employee if any such condition arises. (Advice Guide, 2010)
There are many laws that are present in the United Kingdom that protects the interest of the employees and they affect the way in which the human resource is managed at the UKCBC hotel. The main employment laws and their provisions have been discussed below:
The employment rights are given in the different acts and they have been discussed below:
- The Employment Relations Act 1999:
- The Employment Rights Act 1996:
- The working Time Directive 1999:
- The Sex Discrimination act 1975:
- The Equal Pay Act 1970:
- The Race Relations Act 1976:
- The Disability Discrimination Act 1995:
- The National Minimum wage act 1998 (BUSINESS CASE STUDIES, 2014)
- The Employment act 2002 (dispute resolution) (SOCIAL CARE INSTITUTE FOR EXCELLENCE, (n.d.))
The main provisions of all the above mentioned acts are as following:
Right at work
- Depends upon the employees statutory rights and also by the contract of the employment, the employment contract cannot take away any legal right of the employee.
- Statutory rights: the main rights are the right to a written statement of the terms of the employment.
- The right to an itemised pay slip which should be given to the employee
- The employee must be paid at least the national minimum wage as his salary.
- The employee also has right against illegal deduction in the pay.
- The full time employees have the right to paid holidays
- The employees also have right to paid maternity and paternity leave
- The employees should not be made to work for more than 48 hours per week
- The employees have the right to work till the age of 65
- The employees have the right to get the notice of dismissal
Written statement of the main terms and conditions of employment
- All the employees have the right to get a written statement from their employer and the statement should have the following information:
- Job title, wages, hours of the work, sick pay, notice, pension schemes grievances, dismissal, disciplinary procedure and holidays.
Health and safety
- The employers have a statutory duty of care towards the health and safety of all the employees, therefore the employers at the UKCBC hotel should also take care of the health and safety of the employees.
- The employers should provide first aid kits in the works station area
- There should be sufficient means of escape routes in case of fire
- The employees should be provided with safety equipment and safety clothing
- The employers should check the machines on regular basis so that any accident or mishap does not take place
- The employers should provide the employees with cleanliness, washing facilities, drinking water, rest rooms, seating
- There should be no discrimination by the employers against the employees on the basis of:
- Age, gender, disability, race, religion, marriage, pregnancy, gender identity and sexual orientation
- The discrimination can be of different types which can be in the form of harassment, indirect discrimination, reasonable adjustments, direct discrimination, victimisation and discriminations that arise from disability.
Notice of dismissal
- The employees have a legal right to a period of notice when the employer dismisses the employee. The employer is required to follow the dismissal procedure which is as following:
- Send the employee a written statement which explains the reason for the dismissal
- Have a meeting with the employee to discuss the topic of dismissal
- Have an appeal meeting with the employee, if the employee wants to appeal against the dismissal (ADVICE GUIDE, 2014).
LO3 Understand the recruiting and selection process
P3.1 Discuss a job description and person specification for a selected service industry job
Job Description is the product of the process of Job Analysis. Job Analyst studies a job and collects all the relevant statistical information relating to the job. Then he prepares a summary of the information collected by him. This information is summarized in a prescribed form and this form is known as Job Description. It is a summary of statistical information relating to a particular job. It defines the rights, responsibilities and organizational relations attached with a particular job.
Personal specification means a contour of the qualifications, personal skills, abilities and experiences that are to be kept in mind in the recruitment and selection process. The criteria include duties of the job description and contain the minimum requirements essential to do the job effectively. The criterions which are selected by various organizations should have directly relation with the duties and responsibilities of job description and containing the bare minimum requirements that are essential in doing the job effectively. Therefore the selected criteria should be able to attract most suitable candidates and be the basis of the criteria of selection. (HR Consultancy Services, 2012)
In UKCBC Hotels there are various jobs available in the organization and jobs depending upon the qualification and the abilities of its staff. The two positions covered in this discussion are: –
Job Description and person specification for a Hotel Pastry Chef Baker is defined on the basis of purpose of its role: –
The main concern of every Baker is to deliver the best quality product to its customer which is according to their requirements. The baker is a person who contributes to the happy moments of people who are taking the services of UKCBC. They have to make the special movements of their customers more special and this can be done only delivering the best and one of a kind service experience to its customers. The job description and responsibilities of Baker: –
- The job requirement of a baker embrace a well-balanced level of physical fitness, the capability to pay close concentration to detail, and a desire to take pride in one’s work.
- The Baker of UKCBC must possess the imaginative capability to make their desserts alluring to the eyes of its customers.
- Bakers also need good communication expertise while working with other chefs is a major function of the job.
- The bakers also requires good customer service silks because they require to communicate to their customers and has to understand the requirement of its customer and deliver the best quality service to its customers.
- Another job responsibility of Bakers is also to manage other supporting staff working with them. (H Careers, 2009)
- Skills and Capabilities: – they should have experience about baking and should know different techniques used in baking this make them as well as UKCBC more competent in comparison to its competitors.
- Experience and Knowledge: – The hopeful candidate to have a customer facing experience and administrative experience in busy kitchen. They should have competency in working with other people, in the kitchen.
Job Description and Personal Specification for a hotel receptionist, it is defined on the basis of the purpose of the job: –
The main job of a hotel receptionist is to manage the clients which are coming for information on the front desk. The role being defined to a receptionist is providing general office supervision support for the organisation being responsible for travel and bookings and supporting facilities which are required in maintaining a safe and pleasant environment for both staff and visitors. The various tasks and responsibilities of a Hotel Receptionist in UKCBC are: –
- The continuous functioning of the front desk in the hotel is one of the major responsibilities of a Receptionist in UKCBC hotel. They employ professionals for this purpose.
- The prime task of Receptionist is to attend the customers on front desk, through e-mails, phone calls, letters, fax, this way they can communicate with the customers and can assist them in times of any problem customers may arise.
o The receptionist should treat the customers in professional and welcoming manner, receipt the delegates and visitors and ensure that they have met with the person in the reception area they were aspiring for or otherwise being asked to move to meeting room. (National Career Service, 2012)
- Skills and capabilities: – a flexible approach to work is very important for UKCBC, having IT skills in capability with the job as to have acquaintance of MS Office: Word, Excel; Internet. Ability to prioritize the schedule and exigent task and having a team working ability, etc.
- Experience and Knowledge: – The hopeful candidate to have a customer facing experience and administrative experience in busy office. Also to have experience in communicating with wide range of people face to face either by phone or telephone and having an experience in dealing and answering with busy telephones, etc.
Hotel Receptionist & Waiter
Hotel receptionist job description:
- The hotel receptionist reports to the hotel manager
The job objective is to deliver an efficient and friendly customer service and also to create a warm and welcoming atmosphere for the guests that would enter the UKCBC hotel. The main aim of the receptionist should be to retain and attract new customers.
- The receptionist should mandatory have the proof of right to work in the United Kingdom.
- The receptionist must have a bank account on her name in the United Kingdom
- The receptionist must be fluent in English
- Should also have a fixed place of residence
- To administer all reservations, cancellations and no-show, in line with the company policies
- To provide brilliant customer service every time
- To assist in keeping the hotel reception clean and tidy, always
- The receptionist is required to deal with the enquiries made by the customers in a professional manner, whether the enquiries are made in person, on phone or through email
- The receptionist must be up to date with all the current policies, promotions, and pricing of the UKCBC hotel
- The receptionist must fulfil the reasonable request by the guests to keep them satisfied
- Should report any maintenance issues to the line manager
- Should also be responsible for evacuation in case of any emergency like fire or earthquake.
- Needs to be friendly, always smiling, welcoming to the customers so that there is a friendly environment and the customer feels comfortable
- Should always remain calm, polite and patient in all situations
- Should help the customers in every way possible
- The receptionist should be very confident
- Should have a positive attitude
- Should require minimum help from others
- Should be committed towards increasing the new UKCBC hotel’s business
- Should be trustworthy
- Should be honest
- Should be flawlessly dressed
- Should be respectful in nature
- Can be relied upon
- Must have the ability to work in teams
- Should work with the team to achieve the best of the results for the UKCBC hotel
- Should handle different team works to ensure that team’s workload can be managed
- Should be able to have a communication with the employees of all level in a professional way (WETHERSPOON, J D, 2014).
Hotel waiter’s job description:
The waiter’s main job is to take orders and to serve food and beverages to patrons at tables in dining halls.
The main duties of the waiter are as following:
- To greet the customers
- Present the customers with the food and drinks menu
- Inform the customers about the daily specials
- Answer queries related to the menu
- Take the food and beverages orders from the customers
- Prepare drinks and food garnishing
- Relay the food and drinks order to the kitchen staff as soon as possible
- Remove dirty dishes
- Clean the floors
- Clean the tables (MY PLAN, 2014)
Training and qualifications:
Education: no formal education is required for a person to become a waiter, as waiters are generally people of young age in their teens therefore no such education is required although education till high school would be helpful in the job.
The waiter can still do courses in vocational studies to sharpen his skills further. To become a waiter it is required that the person has a good and friendly nature and one who is quick to respond. So the person’s personality is more important than his educational qualifications for the job of a waiter.
The waiter in the UKCBC hotel will be given short term on the job training. But some full service restaurants give the new employees some classroom training. These training provide the employees in having a good rapport with the employees and these trainings teach the employees how to work in a team. These trainings also teach the employees with employer situations and how to cope with unpleasant situations. The training for the waiter also includes alcohol training which teaches the ways in which the alcohol is to be served and the limit of alcohol to be served and also to see that the state and local laws are being followed regarding the sale of the goods.
Communication skills: the waiter must have great communication skills which includes first listening to the customer and then replying to the quires in a polite and friendly manner, the waiter should also have good English language skills.
Customer-service skills: the waiter need to have good customer skills because there job is to serve the customers. The waiter should be pleasing polite and must have a good level of patience.
Detail oriented: the waiter is required to give full attention to the little requirements of the customers which includes particular garnishing and toppings and should serve them exactly what they had ordered.
Interpersonal skills: the waiter is always required to be attentive, courteous and tactful when they deal with the customers and they need to be polite in all the conditions and should solve the customer’s problems as soon as possible.
Physical stamina: the waiter should have a good physical stamina as in their job they are required to spend the whole day standing and serving food and drinks from one place to another.
As mentioned before, it is the responsibility of the HRM department of the hotel to recruit new employees for the empty jobs in the company. Although the job requirements are given to the HR by the manager of the concerned department where a position is vacant, yet it is the HR who understands the job requirement, use different methods to contact potential candidates for the job, setting up the interviews and negotiating on the salary. In UKCBC hotel, the 2 very important positions are vacant which are – The front desk manager and Marketing manager. The job description for these positions are provided below:
- Front Desk Manager Job Description and Person Specifications:
This is one of the most important job in any hotel and that is why the person for this job has to be very experienced and sincere. The front desk manager is the first employee of the hotel with whom the client interacts ad the first impression of the front desk manager plays an important role in creating the image of the hotel in the client’s mind (Kusluvan, Ilhan, & Buyruk, 2010, pp. 211). If the first impression is good, client feels himself lucky to find a good place to stay and might avoid some other issues. The job description and person specification for the front desk manager is explained below:
- Since front desk manager is the one who communicates with the client on his arrival at the hotel, he should be fluent in the native language. The knowledge of other languages is always a plus point and the preference is given to the candidates who are fluent in 2 or more languages.
- Assigning a waiter to the client who carry the luggage of the client to his room.
- Takes care of all the calls which are related to the advance reservation.
- Arranging the different modes of transport according to the instructions of the client, in case client wants to go for sightseeing or any other purpose.
- Allocating the rooms to the clients and maintaining the record of the occupied and available rooms.
- Process the exit request of the clients and coordinate with the billing department for full and final payment.
- The feedback of the clients is always important in the hotel business and this responsibility has to be taken care by the front desk manager.
- Marketing Manager Job Description and Person Specifications:
The job description of the marketing manager is provided below:
- Marketing manager is responsible for the business of the hotel and prepares the strategies for attracting more and more clients to the hotel.
- Marketing manager has to meet lots of people during the promotion of the hotel and that is why he must possess excellent communication skills.
- Excellent interpersonal skills.
- Good leader so that he could lead a team of young and energetic marketing resources.
- Marketing manager should have the knowledge of the methods of advertising and he should be able to use the marketing method which is effective and cheaper.
- Marketing manager is responsible for the development of marketing materials like posters and leaflets.
- He should be able to handle the big promotion events and must have experience of handling the crowd.
Companies with the corporate culture and having the efficient and effective recruitment and selection process use the job analysis, job description, person specification and the related things for the advertisement of the jobs. Personnel in such companies are recruited with the proper procedure followed and the designed legislations. UKCBC hotel is a full-fledged organization with the corporate culture and it concentrates on the provision of the excellence to the customers, establishment and the maintenance of the standards and promoting the culture of the UKCBC hotel. Two of the job descriptions and the person specifications are being designed for the UKCBC hotel as follows
Job description is the written statement that is used for the purpose of outlining the duties, responsibilities and the tasks to be performed by the employees in the job and the necessary contributions that are required to be made by the particular employee in the organization (Krumer-Nevo et al., 2011).
|Job title||Receptionist||Room attendant or cleaner|
|Job requirements||The speaking and the communications skills of the person must be strong.|
They must know how to treat the customers with warmth & generosity.
Customers at the reception may have different queries so they must be bold enough to answer them.
Customer’s complaints handling is carried out by them.
Reservations and booking management
Treating the guests with enough goodness and in a fair way
|Cleaning and maintaining the hotel rooms|
Following the cleanliness standards
Customer care services and helping the customers every time they need the hygiene etc
Cleaning all the stuff that requires dusting in the room
Cleaning all the tables, windows and doors etc of the room.
|Essential requirements||Work permit for UK|
Knowhow of all the languages and specially English
2-3 years experience for working at the recognized hotel
Having the permanent residence near the hotels.
|Work permit for UK|
Know how of the cleaning standards at hotel and all the procedures for cleaning the hotel rooms
Should be able to speak all the languages.
|Reports to||They must report to the hotel managers for any issues||They are accountable for reporting to the cleaning supervisors.|
Person specification is the written statement that outlines the characteristics and the traits of the person and the various behaviors and attitudes reflected by the employees while working in the organization.
|Job title||Receptionist||Room attendant or cleaner|
|Personal specification||The communication skills of the person being selected as a receptionist must be strong enough to deal with the customers in the generous way and the conversation skills must be good enough.|
The receptionist must tackle all the situations wisely and he must be able enough to cope with the stress.
The UK is also a tourist attraction for the German and the Spanish people so the receptionist must have the knowhow of these languages along with the basic English language.
|The cleaner must have the experience of 6 to 8 months for cleaning the rooms and maintaining the standards of the cleanliness for the rooms and the lobby in hotel.|
He must have the time management skills for cleaning all the rooms of the hotels and maintaining the cleaning standards.
He must have the knowhow of the standards of the cleanliness in UKCBC and have the capabilities for adherence to them.
Recruiting people for a specific job position is always typical and must be executed in a significant manner. In service industry finding the right person for the desired job has become a challenging task for Human Resource department of many organizations. Many hospitality industries are outsourcing their work of recruiting people to highly experienced consultancies. It is important for a banquette manager to have an eye on each and every aspect of the hall and for this position a person with high level of dedication and experienced is required to fulfil the desired needs of the clients (Cushway, 2008).
Job Description: – As a Banquette Manager the individual is require managing regular operations to cater the needs of guests and business objectives. The person should ensure to provide maximum engagement in executing the operations. In addition to this the person must adhere to the standards of hotel and operating procedures. Our hotel believes in offering our guests with unique and exceptionally well experience of modern travel style and design and therefore, we are looking for a dynamic personality that can embody client’s vision. Apart from assisting guests a Banquette manager is require to ensure that preparation, service, storage of foods and beverages are done properly (Gatewood, 2010).
Proper planning for special events, ensuring highest client satisfaction, organizing events in an effective manner, directing the service staff for events and appropriate administration in Beverage and Food department are some of the mandatory responsibilities. A person with having at least 3 years of experience in executing Food and Beverage operations in a 5 star property. Individual having experience of handling international clients is preferred (Cushway, 2008). A person must be having 2 years of experience in supervisory role and knowledge of micros system. Excellent communication skills with proficiency in English, both verbal and written are essential.
Knowledge of other languages will be an added advantage. A hotel management degree form a reputed university is a must. Master’s Degree will be an added advantage. We are looking for highly proficient coach and mentor with a clear vision and strong leadership skills, committed to the enlistment of the team. Pleasing personality of the person will make our guests feel comfortable and will help the organization in building a strong relationship with the clients (Stefanelli, 2001). Remuneration will depend on the capabilities and will be discussed at the time of interview.
P3.2 Compare the selection process of different service industries businesses
The UKCBC hotel is an under development project which needs the recruitment of many resources. The selection and recruitment of the employees at UKCBC hotel is the responsibility of the HRM department. As mentioned before, most of the top management positions at the hotel are already filled up by the owners and board of the directors. The HR manager and other people working in the HRM department are the outcome of this process which now assigned the responsibility to recruit the people for other vacant positions.
The first step of the selection process in a service based industry like UKCBC hotel is to get the requirement and convert that requirement into a job description which is very specific to the position for which the process is going on (Chang, Gong & Shum, 2011, pp. 814). Once the job description is prepared, HR performs one of the two actions mentioned below or sometimes uses both of them simultaneously.
- HR put the job description on the employment sites and every employee or a fresher in the market who is looking for a job sees this job advertisement on these job portals and apply online by sending his resume to the email id mentioned in the advertisement.
- HR makes a deal with the job portals and pays some amount to search their database of resumes. The resumes which match the job description are then shortlisted by the HR.
Once HR at the UKCBC hotel has the shortlisted resumes which are received by any method explained above, he contacts the applicants and conducts a telephonic interview to check the overall capacity of the applicant. If HR finds himself satisfied with the telephonic interview, he fixes and appointment with the applicant for the interview.
It is also the responsibility of the HR manager to form an interview panel in which the people who are the subject matter experts of the subject for which the interview is being conducted are gathered. Once an applicant clears all the rounds of the interview successfully, the HR provides the offer letter to him and starts the process of joining.
As mentioned above, the UKCBC hotel handles the employees’ selection and recruitment on their own with the help of the job portals. Since this is a new hotel, the HR and other managers at hotel have plenty of time to organise the process of selection and recruitment. On the other hand, Hilton hotel is a big successful hotel and instead of handling the whole process of employee selection and recruitment, Hilton hotel outsources the process to other consultancies.
The HR of the company collects the job requirements from the head of the different departments and prepare a job description accordingly. Once the job description is ready, HR sends the job description to a consultancy and let them know the requirements, number of employees required and the budget of the company. Now, it is the responsibility of the concerned consultancy to collect the resumes of the matching profiles and complete the selection process. Even sometimes the interview panel is also formed by the consultancy in which subject matter experts are included. All of this saves a lot of time and headache of the HRM department at Hilton hotel. The consultancy charges around one month salary of the employees which are hired by them for Hilton hotel. Consultancy also provides a probation period of the employees and if the company is not satisfied by the performance of the employees selected by the consultancy, they could ask the consultancy to replace those employees.
Job analysis, job description, person specification and the analysis of the duties and responsibilities of the job is the first step of the human resource management process. It them follows the recruitment and selection of the employees in the organization. Recruitment and selection is also a cumbersome process and it is dependent on the needs of the organizations.
At UKCBC, the human resource management process starts with the analysis of the job and the designing of the job descriptions and the job specifications etc in order to attract the talented pool of candidates for the hotel management. The employees selected are also trained and developed so it is very crucial to determine the employee’s capabilities because they are later to be developed by UKCBC hotel. If the employees are selected using the particular procedure and the analysis, then they must have to be given the training for the removal of the existing and the expected skills gap. The qualifications and the experiences required are enlisted in the person specification of the jobs. Selection process of the employees at UKCBC is affected by a number of factors as follows
- Seniority of the posts or the level of management at which the employees are selected
- Requirement of the competencies and skills of the job needed for carrying out the job
- Resources available in the organization and the constraints if any
- Equality and the diversity issues in the organization for selecting the employees etc
At all the levels of the management at UKCBC, the positions are selected differently because the requirements of the posts at all the three levels i.e. senior, middle and the lower level are different. The higher levels posts are selected by very efficient recruitment process and the costs are incurred because it is a onetime process and the organization must select these posts wisely. The lower level employees are selected with the help of the telephonic and the online interviews etc and the organization must not incur many costs on it because they are seasonal and the employees may be selected on the temporary basis. All the jobs and the posts are advertised using the newspaper and the magazines and on the company website of the UKCBC hotel as well. The recruitment and the selection procedure for all the posts at UKCBC hotel are summarized as follows
Hiring agencies are used for the purpose of selecting the senior positions in the UKCBC hotel. These agencies test the candidates for the leadership and the management capabilities. The candidates are then shortlisted and the interviews are conducted for the senior posts and the selected employees are hired on the basis of the experience and the skills.
Technically expert employees
The hiring agencies or the websites are used for selecting the employees in the UKCBC and the candidates are assessed for the competencies and the skills required for the job and they are then shortlisted on the basis of the skills and interviewed for the final selection.
Low skilled positions
These positions are advertised in the magazines and on the websites and they are selected using the interviews either on the telephone or with the supervisors of the UKCBC hotel.
The selection process is the series of steps through which the employees are finally selected for the enterprise. The selection procedure must be prepared in the manner that more and more information may be made available about the candidates so that the selection of the best employee may be made. The different selection techniques used by UKCBC Hotels are: –
- Application Forms
- Bio-Data Analysis
- Employment tests
- Interviews References
The main selection criteria which the hotels like UKCBC Hotels are using in through interview and employment tests. It is very important to check the knowledge of the people applying for the job because this will ensure high quality services in UKCBC. The organization will become more competent in comparison to its competitors. The diverse ways which the UKCBC is using to employ more and more employee are: –
- Interviews 90%
- Employment Tests 34%
- Psychosomatic Tests 9%
o Assessment Centres 12%
The various selection techniques mentioned above are used by various hotels in U.K. UKCBC is one of the top most hotels in U.K. it is a 5 Star hotel and maintenance of its reputation and characteristics in the society and among its competitors is very important. Interview and employment tests are the best selection procedure of selection in UKCBC because with the help of these techniques the organization will be able to recognize the right people for the right job. These techniques can be applied to a group of participants by trained assessors by using various aptitude diagnostic test so as to obtain information about the applicants abilities or the development potential could be assessed which will benefit the organization. (Anon, 2012)
The selection process at different organisation is different and we have discussed some selection process of different hotels below:
The selection process at hotels Dorchester London:
How to apply:
The application should be filled online after selecting the job that the person is interested in.
The selection process:
The selection process at Dorchester is designed to find the best suitable candidate and it focuses on both the experience of the candidate and also the essential skills required for the job. The selection process also focuses on the personality of the person, his passion for the work and the team spirit. Dorchester believes that role should be right for the candidate as much as the candidate should be right for the job.
Each applicant goes through an interview so that the applicant can be made familiar with the working environment also the people with whom he or she would be working. And after the interview the person is finally selected if found suitable for the job (DORCHESTER, (n.d.)).
The selection process at APEX hotel:
The candidate is supposed to send his C.V. and cover letter on the website of the hotel.
If the candidate meets the selection procedure then he would be invited for an interview
At the interview the candidate will meet some management people who will take the interview
After that the candidate will go to the assessment centre where he will be involved in group activities and individual exercises to test the abilities of the candidate according to the job profile
After that if the candidate is successful then he would sent a confirmation and job contract.
After that on job training will be given to him (APEX HOTELS, 2014).
So we see that the selection process at both the hotels is different from each other and the apex hotel has a more complex selection process the Dorchester hotel and UKCBC hotel should use the selection process of dorchester hotel becuae this is a new and small hotel and there is no requirement of complex selection process as that would be more time and money consuming.
P4. Understand training and development in service industries businesses
4.1 Assess the contribution of training and development activities to the effective operation of a selected service industry business
The training and development activities has become necessary in the rapidly changing business world. All the fresh employees who joins a company only have the theoretical knowledge which is not sufficient to work in the real time. That is why, the HR at the UKCBC conducts many training programs and development activities for the new fresh employees. It is not only the fresh employees who need the training, but also the experienced employees need corporate training and technical training as the nature of the market keeps changing and so are the rules and regulations of the industry (Iverson & Deery, 1997, pp. 76). Every day a new technology is developed to handle the work in companies and it is very much desired that the old employees have proper training to handle these technological and environmental changes.
It has become very difficult for the managers to keep the employees under them motivated because of the increasing work pressure and stress. To resolve this problem, motivational theories are developed which gives a manager a means to motivate the employees. Although the execution of these motivational theories is in the hand of the managers, it is the HRM department which approves the strategies to be implemented by the managers.
According to Maslow, the motivation of an employee is driven by his needs. Maslow has divided the needs of an employee into 5 different levels of a pyramid which is known as Maslow’s Pyramid. As soon as the needs at the lowest level are satisfied, employee moves to the next level needs, but as the employee goes upward in the pyramid, the methods to satisfy the needs becomes difficult. The lower level needs which are called physiological needs could be satisfied easily which are mainly related to the basic requirements of an employee to survive. A good salary, flexible timing at work and healthy working environment comes into this level of hierarchy. The top most level is self-actualization needs which are related to the recognition, rewards and pride of the employee (Baum, 1995, pp. 235).
At UKCBC, the managers keeps track of the employee needs and do their best to fulfil these needs to keep the work force motivated.
As mentioned above in this paper, the induction program is conducted by the HRM department at UKCBC hotel and almost all the other service based industries. Induction is a process where the new employees are provided the knowledge about the company, its policies, processes and operations in the company and other basic activities. The main reason behind the induction programs is that the new employees become familiar with working environment and feel comfortable in working. After the induction is over, the employees are divided into different batches and the training programs are initiated as per the requirements in the company. These programs are designed especially for the new employees where they get the required knowledge and hands on experience.
There are basically 2 types of training which are followed at UKCBC hotel. The first one is the class room training where the employees gain theoretical knowledge of the work. In the second type of training, employees learn on the job. On the job training is very effective to teach the employees about how work is done at the hotel. A mentor is assigned to every employee for on the job training who assigns work to the employees and monitors their progress. The mentor is also responsible for providing the required help the new employees to finish on the job training.
A training is something in which the employees are taught about the processes and operations in the company. In the training programs, employees gain the knowledge of a subject or a job, but when all this learning is put into use by the employee and the assigned task is successfully completed by the employee, that is when the development of the employee is said to be achieved. Whatever an employee learns during the implementation of the training, becomes his muscle memory which he never forgets about.
Training is defined as a process in which the employees are equipped with new skills, competencies and new knowledge that is necessary to perform the job with the help of different methods and tools.
Development is a process in which the existing skills are made perfect and the employees are made productive by advancement in their present skills in order to make them more productive for meeting the needs of the current modern business and for the preparation of new roles.
Training and development in hotel industry
Hotel industry is one of the fastest growing industries that contribute in increasing the revenue of the company. HR department play a vital role in the hotel industry. Training and development is very important for the hotel industry as the employees in these industries require certain skills and competencies to perform the job and to interact with the customers on routine bases. Training and development is very important for the hotel industry to motivate the employees towards work.
Different motivational theories are used by the hotels to motivate their employees. Some of them are as follows
Maslow hierarchy of needs
Abraham Maslow presented a theory of human motivation that emphasizes the five levels of human needs and he assumes that human beings strive to fulfill their basic needs first and then they move on to fill their advanced needs. He proposed a set of five levels of needs that is basic physiological needs, safety and security needs, social needs, self-esteem needs and self-actualization needs. Human beings strive to fulfill their needs for home and shelter and then they move towards their needs for safety and security, then they move for the achievement and recognition of societal relationships such as peer relationships and friendships etc. and so on.
Theory X and theory Y
This theory is used for motivating the human beings at work and it assumes two set of assumptions, one is pessimistic i.e. theory X and the other one is optimistic i.e. theory Y. He assumed that the employees in theory X are very careless and they work for money only; they are not career-oriented and work by punishment and reward systems only. The employees in theory Y are very talented and skillful and they are career-oriented i.e. they work on their own and tend to develop themselves.
UKCBC hotel can use a combination of all of the above theories for the motivation of their employees. Maslow hierarchy of needs and the Hertzberg two factors theory is used at the initial stages to fulfill the basic needs of the employees and to equip the environment with motivational and hygiene factors. Later on the managers must implement the expectancy theory by giving the rewards to the employees based on their performance and they must fulfill the expectation of the employees.
Employees in UKCBC hotel are intended to provide customer services in the best possible way so if they are promoted by the rewards and incentives they will be encouraged to do more work in order to get rich and wealthy.
Role of training and development in hotel industry
Training and development plays an important role in the hotel industry. Some of roles of hotel industry are as follows
Development of human resources
Human resources i.e. workforce in the hotel industry are developed technically and behaviorally by the use of various opportunities presented by the training and development. Employees experience personal growth during training and development.
Team spirit, sense of mutuality, sense of understanding, inter-team collaborations and sagacity of teamwork are all indoctrinated with the help of training and development. The employees learn to interact within teams and collaborations between the employees.
Health and safety
Training and development is very important for the health and safety of the organization as it improves the employees skills which eventually leads to the promotion of organizational goals thereby preventing the organization from being superseded.
Training and development improves the employees’ skills and increase their commitment towards the job that leads to profitability and revenue augmentation.
Need for training in hotel industry
The hotel industry is a service industry and therefore the provision of services to customers is very important and for this purpose, employees need to be trained enough. The training and development in the hotel industry is related to various fields such as treatment of the customers with generosity, provision of customer services, introduction, fire controls, food and hotel hygiene, controlling hazardous and dangerous material to health, manual handling first-aid, technical skills and expertise, product knowledge and employee attitude.
Different types of training in hotel industry
Because of the technological advancements, a number of training and development techniques are used for training the employees. It is very situational process and depends upon the needs of the employees. The training process may either be cognitive or behavioral. Cognitive processes are used for increasing the knowledge and behavioral processes are used for the enhancement of skills. There are two basic types of training which are as follows
- On-the-job training
- Off-the-job training
The training provided to the employees when the employees are on the job and they learn by doing things, it is known as on-the-job training. For effective on-the-job training, proper planning and structure is required and it has to be properly supervised otherwise it can prove to be the cost-effective and a sensible method for training the employees. The training programs for such training include apprentice training, internship training, job instruction training, orientation training, job rotation, coaching etc. They are explained as follows
Internship training is given to the employees for a definite period of time in order to make them learn the basic operations of the hotel and then at the end of the training period a test is taken from the employees based on theoretical concepts and they are given certificates.
Job instruction training is used for the skill development of the employees and some of the facts and knowledge is also inculcated in them. It is job specific and usually completes in four steps i.e. preparation, present, try out and follow up.
Coaching is a process by which employees are trained by one-on-one guidance for the improvement and enhancement of skills and knowledge. Coaching improves communication problems and social skills.
Off-the-job training is the method of training the employees in the outside environment away from their workplace. It is used for the group and team developments and trainings rather than the individual training. The off-the-job trainings include various programs such as lectures, discussions, demonstrations, case studies, role plays, games and simulations etc. They are explained as follows
Those trainings which are conducted by using computers are known as computer-based trainings. They can be used an alternative to class room discussions and lectures etc. the process is sequential and is very time and cost-effective. There is increased privacy by providing the training through computer therefore the learners feel motivated and are committed.
The employees are given the real life examples in the form of case studies and the skills of the employees are increased because they come into contact with the real life examples and the practical life situations. It increases the experience of the employees.
Role playing exercises are also used as the part of off-the-job trainings. It usually consists of a sequence of three steps i.e. setting up, play, and follow up stages. In the first stage all the scenarios and the concepts are clarified for the trainers. During the second stage the presented scenario is played up i.e. the trainers perform their respective roles and in the last stage, the discussions are brought about by the trainers to highlight that what has been studied.
Benefits of training and development
The training and development within an organization is beneficial for the employees, organization and for everyone.
Benefits for employees
Training is very important for the employees as it increases their knowledge and enhances their skills and competencies. The productivity is increased and the self-confidence of the employees also boosts up. It can help employees advance their careers and achieve the organizational goals in best possible manner to promote themselves to higher positions in the organization. The job satisfaction of the employees is enhanced and helps them understand their duties and responsibilities. Practical experience advances knowledge and skills.
Benefits for organization
By provision of training and developing the employees, the overall profitability, revenue and image of the organization can be enhanced. Individual and organizational training needs are met. Although training incurs cost to the organization yet it brings a lot of benefits to the organization which also includes the retention of talented workforce. By training the employees, organizations can achieve operational flexibility and their operations can be made more effective.
Training in the organizations is considered to be very important because of the intense competition, technological advancements, and development of skilled and talented workforce.
Effectiveness of training
After making a larger investment in training and development, the evaluation of the process is necessary to check if the process is effective enough or not. Measurement of training is very necessary for the organization and the effectiveness can be measured on the basis of direct and indirect costs, efficiency, performance of the employees, reactions and learning of the employees, behavioral and performance change of the employees. Following models can be used for measuring the effectiveness of training and development.
Kirkpatrick four levels of evaluation
This approach is used for measuring the effects of training in an organization by the use of four levels each level providing important information. In this model the evaluation begins at level 1 and then it proceeds to level 4. The four levels are reaction, learning, behavior, and results each a measure of satisfaction, learning, behavior change and results respectively.
In the first level i.e. reactions level, the employees’ reactions and learning experiences are evaluated; in second level i.e. learning level, the employees knowledge and skills are assessed; in third level i.e. behavior level, change in behavior of the employees after the training is measured and in last level i.e. result level, the results of the training are evaluated by the testing the performance of the employees in relation to their previous competencies and environment.
CIRO (Context, Input, Reaction, Outcome) Approach
This four level approach is used by the organizations to measure the effectiveness of training programs. Context evaluation emphasizes on the training needs of the organizations as well as individuals. Input evaluation deals with the analysis and gathering of the information about the input to check the availability or acquisition etc. Reaction evaluation measures the reactions of the employees during training about the availability and usage of resources. And the outcome evaluation deals with the outcomes and consequences of the training to the employees.
Difference between training and development
Training is the process of equipping the employees with new skills and it prepares the employees for new and specific jobs whereas the development is the process of polishing the existing skills and competencies of the employees. Both are different from one another.
- Training is a short term process whereas development is a long term educational process.
- Training is provided to improve the technical and mechanical issues whereas development is provided for the enhancement of theoretical and educational skills.
- Training is for the specific jobs whereas development is for general jobs.
- Training is given to the employees for increasing productivity, quality, and personal growth and for the improvement of organizational climate and health and safety issues. Development of employees results in the improvement of managerial performance by conveying the required knowledge, changing attitudes and enhancing skills.
In this competitive era, effectiveness of business operations depends on the skill set of workforce. Most of the organizations fail to achieve desired target due to lack of effectiveness of their workforce. In order to mould the workforce in the desired way one needs to provide appropriate training to the workforce (Hayes, 2009). Training is identified as an essential process now days and must be executed while considering various requirements of the organizations. In order to meet the desired requirements among the workforce service industry can opt for different sort of trainings.
This can be orientation in which senior professional of the organization explains brief information about the requirement and appropriate steps to be taken to execute operations. Organizations can appoint an experienced trainer for providing in house training to the new recruits. In house trainer knows exactly what should be the outcome of employees and helps in moulding the new recruits in desired way in a much efficient manner. In house training is opted by various big organizations and has resulted in positive results for many service industry organizations. In addition to this mentorship and external training can also be done if training is to be done for a particular period of time and for a specific requirement only (Cartwirght, 2003).
Classification of training can also be done on the basis of specific sector. In service industry technical training is required for the persons who are monitoring the hardware and other it related things. Quality Training is the most important training in hospitality industry and it basically deals with familiarizing employees with detecting, preventing, and eliminating non-equality products. Skill training is another important training that is required for the hospitality industry as providing leisure and comfort by treating a guest in a right way is an art and must be taught to the employees in an efficient manner in order to enhance client relationship (Sisson, 2001). Team training is another essential requirement that helps in building the sense of coordination among the employees and helps in realizing the impact of working together.
Many organizations fail to recognize the difference between training and development, and this result in failure in achieving the desired output from the human force (Ford, 2011). If a service industry is spending money on providing training to executives and managers who already possess the required skills and knowledge they require, then this training will not effect on the operations of the organization. An organization must look to develop existing skills to higher level. When a service industry invests in developing its employees, it is helping them in utilizing their existing skills to perform better. This further helps in overall growth of the company as well.
Staff training is a crucial and key function of human resource department of any service industry. This training helps in creating a crucial path for motivating the existing employees and enhancing the productivity of the business operations. It also helps in binding the staff together and is a soul option for keeping the team united. When an organization of any service industry provides training to its staff a peaceful ambience, correct work specifications and passion of work is developed among the employees (Kubr, 2002). Further it helps in enhancing the team spirit between the management and the employees during the course of any process.
If considered on individual level, training helps in enhancing the knowledge and skills of an employee. This further helps in increasing the quality and quantity of output by the particular employee. Training also helps in building a strong self-confidence in the work of an employee, as he is clear in his objectives and procedures after training. It can be stated that trained employees will use the resources and materials in a much efficient manner and will avoid wastage. For organizations it will directly influence in enhancing the revenues, and overall profitability in terms of building client relationships and building brand loyalty (Sisson, 2001).
Training is important when certain goals of an organization are not achieved by the existing skill set of the employees. In order to understand the requirement of an organization in a much efficient manner and to develop the required skill set to execute particular operations training is required and must be carried out in an efficient manner (Hayes, 2009). Training also reduces the burden of monitoring as after the training employees become self-reliant and can work with minimum assistance by the supervisors. Therefore, in the persisting era of increasing competition training is must to take lead among the competitors in the market.
Service Industry organizations must consider the above stated factors while framing strategies for providing training to its employees. In order to grow in a competitive manner even employees demand for training sessions and organizations must ensure that proper training must be given to the employees at regular interval of time in order to enhance the proficiency of the employees and the organization. Thus, training is very essential for the overall growth of any company.
As a new hotel, UKCBC has to be aware of all the factors that affect the progress of the business. Right from the employment laws, importance of employment relations to analysing the supply and demand chain, the hotel must pay heed to everything. The report is a clear reflection of the recruitment and selection process that is adopted by UKCBC hotel and the job description required to fill the major vacancies. Further, the need to implement the training and development activities for the employees is highlighted by the hotel and it endeavours to achieve complete customer satisfaction
The assignment gives an insight into the learning of the concepts related to the human resource management. The main issues discussed are the role and the purpose of HRM in the hospitality industry as well as the insight of the importance of the HRM in selecting and recruiting the employees. The employees are selected using the employment legislations and the employment laws. The recruitment and selection process is very important for selecting the employees and the employees are trained and developed using various techniques.
In this paper, the responsibilities of the Human Resource Department (HRM) at UKCBC are discussed. The areas of the company which come under the HRM department are mainly – employee selection and recruitment, induction and training programs, policy preparation and implementation, following the rules and regulations of the government and taking care of the employee needs. In a nutshell, it could be said that Human Resource Management is a department which takes part in all the processes which are related to the human resources of the hotel.
UKCBC Hotel is a big hotel organization that is popular for its quality of service and the customer satisfaction. A big contribution in this massive success of the brand comes from the excellent human resource management of the organization. The organization uses an extensive recruitment process to hire only the most suitable candidates for the job. The employees are trained well before they actually start working. As the recruitment process is lengthy and expensive, the organization wants to keep the employees for a long time and improve the employee turnover time. For this purpose, a proper human resource technique needs to be implemented that keeps the employees motivated towards higher quality in work. Performance based rewards and promotions are some of the main features that are used by the company to maintain motivation and job satisfaction among the employees.
In the conclusion we can say that HRM helps UKCBC in delivering best quality services to its customers by making their experience superior and excellent and makes their stay long and committed to UKCBC. There are different aspects of HRM that works together to make the organization efficient and effective. Human Resource Management is a wide concept which helps the organization in dealing with the problems faced by people working together. HRM works in all aspects of organization weather marketing, finance, production. All these are important to be accessed by an organization depending upon their need to access which criteria first and which last.
In this report we have discussed the hotel and its recruitment process. In this report we have also analysed all the factors related to human resource management in the light of the case study which is given which is a fictitious hotel UKCBC hotel. In this report we have also discussed the job description of a receptionist and a waiter. In this report we have also discussed different recruitment process and the need and role of different training and development process and how they can be applied in the present hotel industry.