Cultural and heritage tourism assignment help
Table of Contents
Heritage and cultural tourism industry is of vital importance in context to UK as it contributes heavily to the economy of the country. With increasing demand for the heritage and cultural tourism sites, UK has emerged as one of the prime destinations with huge tourists coming from within UK and foreign countries to visit the cultural and heritage sites present in the country. The aim of present paper would be to explore the cultural and heritage tourism industry in context to UK. There are four tasks and below would be the objectives which would be fulfilled with the help of completing each task:
LO1: Understand the growth and development of the heritage and cultural industry within travel and tourism
LO2 Understand the purpose of heritage and cultural attractions within the travel and tourism sector
LO3 Understand roles, responsibilities and ownership of organization in the heritage and cultural industry
LO4 Understand the role of methods of interpretation within the heritage and cultural industry
Present paper would look into the two case studies given for tourism industry which are for “The Giant’s causeway” and Central Jordan. Further present paper would also look into heritage and cultural tourism related aspects for the Science museum and V & A museum located in London.
TASK 1: Understand the growth and development of the heritage and cultural industry within travel and tourism
Heritage can be considered as the things which have been inherited from past and in different contexts meaning of heritage would also be different. Cultural heritage can be defined as the physical artefacts and intangible attributes while natural heritage can be characterized by inheritance from flora and fauna. Heritage tourism would be travelling to different places so as to represent authentic stories about people and places which occurred in past time.
Since inception the cultural tourism retains its position as the most important part of heritage tourism which came under the chief interest from the 16th century. At the starting phases the cultural tourism used to be the main attraction for the tourists but with the passing time the tourism has become the culture. Recently the cultural tourism came into sight as a chief regulation though the culture and arts had been in the limelight with key customer attractions at the starting days. The unfavourable influence of the native or local sightseers of their cultural lands is one of the most important issues which is discussed in the chronological data on cultural tourism.
Heritage and cultural tourism prevailing in UK can be considered as the lifeline for overall tourism sector and there has been enormous growth recorded in this tourism sector. The major factors attributing success to the cultural and heritage tourism would include importance of culture, increasing interest for consumers and wide range of options offered to the consumers. In UK contribution of heritage and cultural tourism industry can be understood from the statistics which shows that there are more than 10 million people visiting UK for heritage and cultural tourism aspects every year. More than 40% of the people visiting UK are for heritage and cultural tourism only (Carter, 2009). Heritage and cultural tourism offers high opportunity for growth in economy wherein it can be analysed that tourism has increased by more than 2.8% year on year as compared to the other industry sectors which are growing at 0.8% such as manufacturing, telecommunication and mining etc. Another major advantage for the cultural and heritage tourism in UK is the growing number of employment provided by tourism sector where in heritage sector is responsible for 113000 direct and 157000 indirect jobs.
Construction industry which is one of the vital components of GDP in UK get support from tourism sector as there is high amount of revenue which comes in construction sector from tourism industry. Tourism sector accounts for more than 43% of the revenue for construction industry wherein year 2008 accounted for £47.2 billion of revenue (Levy et al, 2001). Revenue in repair and maintenance industry is expected to rise at a rate of 8% annually in coming year attributing to high growth for the construction sector due to heritage and cultural tourism. Heritage tourism in UK develops high reputation for the country wherein it has been revealed that 80% of the visitors coming in UK would visit the historic monuments. Tourist visit in UK for historic monument can be compared with other visiting places, such as theatre opera which accounts for only 10% visits, sports activities accounting for 11% of the visits and museum accounting for 23% of the visits in UK. Some of the key sites attracting high number of tourists in UK would include St Paul’s Cathedral, Tower of London, Stonehenge, Roman Baths, Leeds Castle, York Minster, Palace of Westminster, Chatsworth House and Westminster Abbey. Looking at the various historic sites from the aspect of most visiting site by tourists it can be established that Tower of London is having highest popularity with more than 2.3 million tourists visiting the place on yearly basis from UK and outside UK as well.
Developing the time frame for heritage and cultural tourism in UK it can be revealed that Winchester City museum is more than 100 years old and celebrated its century in year 2003. Winchester city museum is considered as one of the most popular and historic Roman tower made in UK. Castle of Wolvesely is popular since year 1554 for the marriage of Philip II in the castle. Cathedral of Winchester has remained the popular place of worship for more than 900 years old. Winchester Cathedral is known for fine architecture developed and hidden treasure inside the cathedral (Jones, 2009).
It has been revealed that heritage tourism is gaining its importance not only in UK but around the world as tourists are focusing their attention towards the heritage and cultural tourism activities. Figure 1 below highlights the various sites or attractions which are a part of the heritage tourism activities in special reference to UK:
Figure 1: Showing activities and sites which are a part of heritage tourism
As given above that the physical attractions such as Science museum and V&A museum are among the attractions which are forming a part of physical attractions for heritage tourism in UK. Destinations which are associated with people and particular themes are also the part of heritage tourism. Similarly, destinations which are associated with particular industries and theme are a source of heritage tourism in UK. Further other activities such as routes & journey, events and heritage holiday packages are also a part of the heritage tourism industry in UK.
There is ongoing debate in the heritage and cultural tourism industry for the access versus conversation of the tourism sites. There are two aspects for the heritage and cultural tourism activities wherein at one side it is a rich source of revenue for the nation while on other side with increasing number of tourist there is adverse impact on the various tourist sites. So there needs to be some solution so that both revenue and sites can be properly managed. Revenue needs to be enhanced and there are no adverse impacts on the sites with high number of tourists visiting the place (Ward & Wilkinson, 2006).
There are several stakeholders in heritage tourism such as local communities, tourists, global community and tourist agencies dealing in the development of heritage tourism package. Example for debate over conservation over access can be taken from the two case studies referred in present context which are The Giant’s causeway and Central Jordan (Tilden, 2007). First case study regarding The Giant’s causeway reveals that there is conflict between interests of various stakeholders. The Giant’s Causeway is located in North Ireland and considered as one of the most popular tourism destination due to its unique geology and landscapes. Developers are looking to exploit economic benefits from the site by developing hotels, golf course and other commercial places but the people residing in nearby locations are not adaptive to the view of these developers as these people would lose their income and the high number of tourist coming would also result into decay of these sites.
Task 2: Understand the purpose of heritage and cultural attractions within the travel and tourism sector
Heritage tourism would be having main purpose of visiting the places which are attached to the historic people or stories of these people. Along with people and stories, events, routes, festivals and themes would also be associated. Further for a which has high number of heritage site the major purpose would be to gain income, providing chances of employment and building reputation through heritage and cultural tourism activities.
P2.1 assess the purpose of heritage and cultural attractions in meeting the needs of different customers
In order to explore the purpose with which tourists around the world come and visit the historic sites in the world would be revealed through two museum which are Science museum and V&A museum. Science museum is one of the most popular and old museum located in city Kensington and home for more than 2 million people from UK and foreign countries. Science museum is public funded museum and tourists come to visit Science museum due to education & research, recreation & entertainment and inheriting heritage & cultural aspects among the next generation (Beck and Cable, 2011). Science museum contains more than 300,000 objects which are includes the invention of 3-D Cinema, Jet engine and steam engine etc. There are five different stores in Science museum which have been divided based on the objects places on each store. First floor contains items related with agriculture, second floor contains items which are related to mathematics, third floor contains Science monuments of 18th century, fourth floor contains invention from medical Science while fifth floor of the museum containsart & Science related to the medical and veterinary Science.
V&A museum is even bigger as compared to the Science museum and contains objects more than 4.5 million. This museum is home for items such as arts and design and some of the items places in this museum are more than 5000 years old. Entire museum has been divided into small galleries and there are in total 145 galleries divided in V&A museum. The key collection of items placed in V&A museum would include furniture, fashion items, jewellery and painting etc. This museum is of high importance for country in order to restore the historical significance of culture of UK (Regnier et al, 1994).
Considering the target segment of consumers for the heritage and cultural tourism it can be revealed that there are mainly three consumer segment for these activities and these three segments are individual customers, group customers travelling together and group customer travelling together with common set of interest with each other. Individual consumers visiting the tourism sites would be visiting for the purpose of research, education and recreation purpose. Second segment of people would be travelling together may be due to the travel package availed by them as group travel packages comes with cost efficiency as compared to individual travel packages. Third segment of the tourists would include the people traveling together due to common set of interest and these tourists would be travelling people with whom they share the common interest.
The major target segment for these museums would include the adults and students who are coming to the museum for leisure, enjoyment, research, recreation and gaining knowledge regarding heritage and cultural aspects of UK. The usage rate for the museum would be quite high as there are more than 2 million tourists coming at each of the museums. Looking into the reasons for heritage and culture tourism segment leisure has been considered as the most popular reason. There are more than 10 million visits which take place for heritage and culture tourism in UK. Further there is high association between the leisure trips and heritage tourism segment in UK. More than 40% of the tourists are who are coming for leisure activities would definitely visit heritage and cultural tourism sites in UK. For income generation also heritage and cultural tourism is among the major segment for UK tourism activities.
The backgrounds of the two museums satisfy the demands of the visitors in terms of fun, enjoyment, recreation and gathering knowledge regarding the historical backgrounds of the monuments. During the visit the visitors can gather information regarding the chronological and as well as the scientific details regarding the monuments. As the museums allows the visitors to satisfy their recreational needs the tourists can spend gala time with their family during the visit. According to the viewpoint of some visitors, the monuments are the sources of the academic projects where they can complete the entire research by collecting the required details about the monuments by visiting them.
Task 3: Understand roles, responsibilities and ownership of organization in the heritage and cultural industry
In order to gain high revenue and maintain the heritage sites it is important that ownership structure should be properly developed. A site which has suitable management structure would be having high number of tourists visiting the site along with conservation of site from any kind of decay. There are basically two types of ownership structure in heritage and cultural tourism in UK which are public private partnership and public ownership. For the tourism sites which are funded by public agencies would involve protection, maintenance and promotion activities from the government agencies. In the public private partnership structure for management of site roles and responsibilities would be divided so that each party becomes responsible for particular activity.
P3.1 evaluate the impact of different types of ownership on the management of heritage and cultural sites
The two major ownership types for management of cultural and heritage sites would be public private partnership and public ownership. Example of public private partnership (PPP) can be taken as the Woodland Trust while English Heritage and Nature England are the example of publicly managed tourism sites in UK. The two ownership types adopted in the management of cultural and heritage sites would be having their impact in terms of management and responsibility defining for the tourism sites (Ham, 1992).
The difference in ownership for the management of tourism sites can be observed in terms of the key challenges which are faced in the management of these sites for the two different ownership types. It is imperative that there would be high requirement of funding for managing these sites, creativity, level of responsibility & role assignment and lack of entrepreneurial spirit. Publicly funded sites are facing issues as the subsidy which has remained biggest issue for these organizations. Hence in order to propose solution for the funding problem PPP arrangements are quite useful wherein funding can be obtained through several sources so as to manage these sites well and enhance income generation program. Creativity and entrepreneurial spirit can be enhanced for the management of cultural and heritage sites through development of public private partnership as empty spaces can be managed well and revenue enhancement can be done through effective ways.
It has been observed that changing demographic pattern, secularization and development of the new tourism sites has led to lower charm of these cultural and heritage tourism sites. Role of PPP structure would be very important in such situations wherein through effective promotion tourist awareness can be created so as to enhance overall number of visitors coming to these places. Further public organizations have lost trust with the local communities as well and development of public private partnership for managing these sites would lead to the re-development of that mutual trust and understanding.
PPP structure for management of cultural and heritage tourism sites would be unique in terms of the providing training and education for the various stakeholders who are involved in the activity of management of these sites. An efficient organizational structure can be developed in public private partnership due to effective role & responsibility assignment activities. The major advantage for defining role and responsibility for the tourism site would be in terms of enhanced revenue along with preservation of the site (Salazar, 2007).
Present context would analyse the roles and responsibilities which are involved in the heritage and cultural tourism industry. Department of culture and Woodland trust has been selected for this context. Woodland trust which is public private partnership arrangement is charitable trust wherein the major objective for the organization is to work for natural habitats. The funding requirement for the organization is arranged through multiple sources such as donation, membership, appeals and charitable trust. Woodland is one of the popular brands and leverage on their ability to influence the people for contributing towards the purpose of Woodland trust. The major influence would be on the government agencies, land owners and like-minded organizations prevailing in UK. There are more than 1100 woods which are managed by Woodland trust and total covered area for Woodland trust is approx. 200 sq. KM. There are both natural as well as semi natural spaces arranged in order to preserve the natural habitats.
Department of culture can be considered as another example involved in management of cultural and heritage sites in UK. Department of culture in England is publicly managed organization wherein the major role for the organization is to promote the cultural and heritage tourism in country. Department of culture would be responsible for managing cultural tourism along with leisure activities associated with it. Olympic and Paralympics games held in year 2012 were also managed by Department of culture in England (Silberman, 2006). Department of culture would be involved in activities such as development of list for the heritage sites, obtaining license for the export & import of goods associated with cultural & heritage tourism in country and management of the art collection for the heritage sites. This would require department of culture to manage the work responsibility in order to preserve the tourism sites so that higher number of tourists can be attracted towards these sites. Another organization which involves in conserving the natural sites available in England named as Nature England in order to magnetize more number of visitors in the direction of the sites.
For the organizational plonking of heritage tourism organizations, voluntary ownership are a crucial composition which includes appointing charitable organizations based on which the management process of the heritage sites can be implemented using the funds raised from the public donations. These kind of charitable organizations are developed in public welfare with a transpar5ent intention of administering a scrupulous heritage reserve.
Interpretation for the heritage and cultural tourism sites is important as this would help in order to provide the key information pertaining to these sites. Interpreting the significance for these sites would help in order to understand the importance and remember the facts and stories related with these tourism sites. Methods of interpretation used in the cultural and heritage industry are of immense importance as they would help the tourists to understand the meaning & significance of the places & sites. Communication developed with the tourist would be of immense importance so that they can understand and appreciate the particular tourism site. Key principle governing the methods of interpretation for the heritage and cultural tourism industry in UK would include development of information sources, authenticity, sustainability and inclusiveness etc. Appreciation activities for the heritage & cultural sites are universal right and it is important to make use of the suitable methods so as to appreciate these sites. Evidence gathering and rich information sources should be related with the methods of interpretation used in the cultural and heritage tourism activities. In the present context of visit made to the two museums i.e. Science museum and V&A museum information pertaining to the two sources were collected and presented to the tourists so that they can understand the importance of these sites.
P4.1 evaluate methods and media used for interpretation within the heritage and cultural industry for tourists
It can be revealed that methods of interpretation used in the two museums were such as to provide ease of interpretation to the tourists so that they can understand the cultural and heritage significance of the two museums. The two museums make use of the different methods of interpretation involving several media types so that rich information can be provided to the tourists regarding these sites. There is requirement for the proper information not only to give interpretation of these sites but also to arouse interest of the tourists who are visiting these sites (Tilden, 2007). Some of the key media types which were deployed in the Science and V&A museum would include exhibits, video & audio display, websites, videotapes and guides providing manual information to the tourists coming to visit these places. Printed media deployed in the museum would include books, advertisement, guides, brochure and leaflets.
Online resources have also developed in order to impart information to the tourists so that tourists who are located at long distance can also get the required information. Technology also has key role in promoting and interpreting these sites wherein through use of audio & visuals and online sources information is imparted to the tourists. Every method of interpretation used in the museum has specific role in enhancing significance of the sites. Print media used in interpretation would be having role to offer rich content pertaining to these sites. Website and other online tool has the significance as they would provide information to tourists who are located at far distance and forms the source of low cost marketing and wide reach. Usage of the modern tools and technique such as display systems and audio system would enhance interest level for the tourists.
Thematic interpretation method can be used wherein central theme would be highlighted so as to make effective communication. This would promote the method of interpretation which is convenient and interesting for the tourists coming to these sites. For the present context of Science museum the central theme was the progress which Science has done in recent years to showcase the benefits which people have derived from the advancement in Science field. Communication developed in the Science museum was around the progress of Science which has been done in the time period.
Usage of both personal and non-personal media type was done so as to make interpretation for the several objects in the museum. Personal media type used for the interpretation of sites would include using the manual methods for interpretation wherein tourist guides or other sources would be referred in order to share information regarding the tourism sites. Non personal media types would be used wherein audio & video methods are deployed in order to enhance the interpretation for the objects placed in museum. Non personal media types are more useful as compared to the personal media type because of the reason that there is high level of information displayed through interactive medium in non-personal media (Moscardo et al, 2007). Further non personal media would be a source of rich information for the tourists and would be preferred as high amount of information can be shared by developing documentary so that tourists does not feel that they are bombarded with high amount of information. Personal media type would be useful in order to develop interest of the tourists in objects placed in museum by interacting with them. Further feedback regarding tourist’s experience in the two museums can be taken by making use of the personal media type.
The present paper has highlighted the importance level of culture and heritage tourism in context to UK. Heritage and cultural tourism has been developed as a rich source of income and employment for UK wherein a major part of the GDP is contributed by Heritage & cultural tourism. Further there are high numbers of visits taking place in UK every year due to heritage and cultural tourism only. Purpose for heritage and cultural tourism has been explored in the present context wherein it has been established that recreation, research, enjoyment and leisure are among the major reason for heritage and cultural tourism in UK. Two types of organizational structure which can be deployed to manage the heritage and cultural tourism in UK have been understood and these are PPP and public organizations. Roles and responsibilities for the two different organizational structures would be different and it has been established that PPP arrangement are better in order to develop effective management for the tourism sites. Finally methods of interpretation used for the cultural and heritage sites have been understood and there are two methods deployed such as personal media and non-personal media.
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