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Introduction

The mega events across the globe generally help the societies or communities of a particular country to ensure social and communal sustainability as it helps people of different cultural, religious and racial backgrounds to get connected. Moreover, the organisation of mega events, such as sporting events or cultural events also helps the countries across the globe to ensure a strong economic sustainability and growth of those particular countries. Hence, it is a common myth that the mega sporting events or cultural events generally help the countries in enhancing socio-cultural sustainability and economic sustainability. It is also essential to consider the fact of environmental sustainability associated with such organised mega events. In some cases, the environmental sustainability of hosting cities is get violated due to poor environmental sustainability concerns. This essay will discuss different angles and sustainability impacts of global mega events by displaying some important real life event examples.

Discussion

The organisation of mega events generally has different types of positive impacts on the host city. Similarly the cities also can face different kinds of negative impacts. The major reason behind the organisation of some major events is to create a strong relationship between the people of different religious, communal, demographic and cultural background of a country. Now-a-days, people love to watch sports, music concerts, tourism events, geographic events, science-fiction events, and other types of cultural events. Governments of different countries, NGOs, and different global event management companies as well as organisations love to organise different types of mega events across different parts of world considering the demand of such events among local people. Moreover, high revenue generation and profitability also can be considered as the major reason behind the organisation of particular events. Sometimes, the aim or objective of the event organisation gets fulfilled and sometime it does not. The positive and negative impacts of the organisation of the events will be discussed below.

Positive Impacts

Successful organisation of the mega events generally helps the organisations to maximise profitability and revenue generation. This maximised profitability and revenue generation actually helps the hosting countries to maintain a strong economic sustainability (Ali-Knight et al., 2008). Event management plays an important role in the economic growth and economic sustainability of different countries. The example of events organised by FIFA and Olympic community can be considered here. In every four years, FIFA used to organise Football World Cup event, which is considered to be an important revenue generator and important driver of profit maximisation. In last Russia FIFA World Cup, the generated revenue and the sports-tourism activities die to this World Cup has successfully helped the Russian economy to grow successfully as the FIFA World Cup helped in the growth of sports industry, tourism industry, event management industry, hotel industry, transport industry, restaurant industry, food and beverage industry, and other types of hospitality sectors. Hence, successful mega events help in the economic growth of different hosting cities as well as countries.

Secondly, social sustainability of a hosting city or the hosting country also can be enhanced. The example of the Chinese New Year event celebration in Sydney can be considered here. People of Chinese community and nationality in Australia used to organise this event on yearly basis on the particular calendar day through the help of Mayor City Council, Federal Government of Australia and different event management companies (Allen et al., 2008). These types of events used to maintain a strong cross-cultural diversity and cross-cultural unity within the society. Unity of people of different cultural backgrounds and rejoicing each other cultural events actually help a particular city to grow collectively. Hence, such types of sports mega events or cultural events used to promote peace and unity of a hosting city or country. Hence, social sustainability also can be considered as an important positive impact of mega events on hosting cities or countries.

Lastly, maintenance of environmental sustainability also can be considered as the positive impacts of some particular events on the hosting cities or countries. The example of environmental sustainability summits can be considered here, which are specifically organised in order to help the countries or communities to maintain environmental sustainability through several ways, such as controlling carbon emission, promoting water recycling, promoting zero solid waste management, promoting the use of substitute green energy resources, and promoting tree plantation and greenery (Yeoman et al., 2003). The example of COP23 climate change summit can be discussed here, which is generally organised every year in order to create awareness of different environmental sustainability activities, such as controlling carbon emission, promoting water recycling, promoting zero solid waste management, promoting the use of substitute green energy resources, and promoting tree plantation and greenery. Hence, these economic sustainability, social sustainability and environmental sustainability can be considered as some important positive impacts of the organised mega events on the hosting cities or countries.

Negative Impacts

There are some negative impacts of the organised mega events on the hosting cities. First of all, poor environmental sustainability can be considered as the major negative impact of the organised mega events on the hosting cities. Lack of pollution control and carbon emission control can affect the ecological balance and environmental sustainability of a city quite badly (Roche, 2000). The example of London Olympics 2012 can be considered here. The organisation of this sporting event has caused the production of 3.4 Million Tons of carbon dioxide. Moreover, failure of the carbon offset and different embarrassing public relation gaffes has damaged the environmental sustainability quite badly. Moreover, the transportation chaos due to the organisation of such big event also has affected the environmental sustainability of the city as too much transportation operation has caused emission of fossil fuel, which caused emission of carbon and greenhouse gas. Affected ecological balance, huge carbon emission, huge GHG emission, and lack of recycling affected the quality of the London Air. Hence, it is considered to be a negative impact of the organisation of the mega event.

Apart from the negative impact on the environmental sustainability, world mega events also can have negative impacts on the legal sustainability of the hosting cities or countries (daniels and Norman, 2003). Again the example of the Russia FIFA World Cup 2018 can be considered here. During this World Cup event, several tourists as well as global spectators have somehow violated the rules and regulations of the country. For example, drug intake, drug addiction, and prostitution. These things are not legally authorised. Hence, it can be proved that the world mega events can have negative impact on the legal sustainability of the country.

Evaluation of the Impacts of Events

From the above analysis, it has been identified that the world mega events can have different kinds of impacts on the hosting cities or countries. There are some negative impacts as well as some positive impacts. The organisers, event management companies and authorities need to work hard in terms of the minimising the possibilities of any kind of errors, which can hamper the economic, legal, environmental, and social sustainability of the hosting city. The government of a country or the city council of a particular city needs to establish an independent or semi-controlled investigation agency. These agencies should be responsible for examining the activities and arrangements of event organisers to maintain environmental, economic, social and legal sustainability of the hosting cities or countries (Daniels and Norman, 2003). On the other hand, this is also important responsibility of the event management companies and event organisers to follow all the legal policies, environmental sustainability policies, economic policies, and cross-cultural policies of a country to city to ensure smooth organisation and ethical completion of mega events.

Negative environmental and legal impacts can be regarded as the major challenges for the event organisers in terms of the organisation of the mega events. The organisers need to consider the carbon footprint policies, recycling policies, waste management policies, and energy usage policies to complete the mega event through the support of government agencies and important external stakeholders. Similarly, the organisers also need to consider the legal policies, such as equality policies, consumer rights acts, discrimination acts etc. in order to avoid the possibilities of the any kind of conflicts (Dwyer et al., 2005). Both the organisers of the events and governments of the countries will be highly responsible to maintain the sustainability of the global mega events.

Conclusion

The organisers and the management of the global mega events used to organise the events in order to meet the demands and satisfaction level of the people. These mega events include sports events, tourism events, festival events, cultural events, music events, different kinds of aware ceremonies, and different types of political summits. These kinds of events as well as summits are important for people of different socio-cultural backgrounds as these help in creating strong and healthy relationship among people of different cultural backgrounds. On the other hand, such events also help the hosting cities or countries to improve the economic environment due to high footfall and strong revenue generation. There can be some negative impacts, such as hampered legal sustainability and environmental sustainability. These challenges need to be overcome by the organisers of the events and governments of respective countries collaboratively.

References

Ali-Knight, J., Robertson, M., Fyall, A. and Ladkin, A., 2008. International Perspectives of Festival s and Events. USA: Elsevier Science.

Allen, J., O’Toole, W., McDonnell, I. and Harris, R., 2008. Festival & Special Event Management. (4th edition). Sydney: John Wiley & Sons Australia Ltd.

Daniels, M.J. and Norman, W.C., 2003. “Estimating the Economic Impacts of Seven Regular Sport Tourism Events”, Journal of Sport Tourism, 8(4), pp.214–222.

Dwyer, L., Forsyth, P. and Spurr, R., 2005. “Estimating the Impacts of Special Events on an Economy”, Journal of Travel Research, 43(1), pp.351-359.

Jackson, J., Houghton, M., Russell, R. and Triandos, P., 2005., “Innovations in Measuring Economic Impacts of Regional Festival: A Do-It Yourself Kit”, Journal of Travel Research, 43(1), pp.360 – 367.

Madden, J.R., 2002. “The Economic Consequences of the Sydney Olympics: The CREA/Arthur Andersen Study”, Current Issues in Tourism, 5(1), pp.7-21.

Roche, M., 2000. Mega-Events and Modernity: Olympics and Exposing the Growth of Global Culture. London: Routledge.

Yeoman, I., Robertson, M., Ali-Knight, J. and Drummond, S., 2003. Festival and Events Management: An International Arts and Culture Perspective. Butterworth Heinemann: Oxford.

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