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  • Aim

This unit will enable learners to gain understanding of the day-to-day activities and procedures involved in food and beverage operations, whilst also developing a range of practical operational skills.

  • Unit abstract

This unit introduces learners to the practical aspects of food and beverage production and service. Because of the nature of their job, hospitality managers need to have basic levels of practical skills, enabling them to work effectively within different kitchen and restaurant environments. Managers may need to work in kitchen and restaurant environments to support operational staff in times of need or to establish themselves as credible team players.

Food and beverage operation management

Learners will develop understanding of a range of food and beverage production and service systems. Learners will undertake an investigation of staffing implications for different systems and businesses to inform system comparisons. Learners will study menu planning and recipes suitable for different industry contexts. They will also investigate the importance of financial processes including, purchasing options, costing of raw materials and commodities, and different selling price models.

Learners will develop their understanding of the processes involved in planning and developing recipes and the factors that determine menu compilation for a variety of customer groups. Learning from this unit is demonstrated in the planning, implementation and evaluation of a food and beverages service for a hospitality event. Ultimately, learners will be able to transfer and apply their expertise to different food production and service situations within the hospitality industries.

The effective use of planning, coordination and communication skills will be emphasised and developed to underpin the work of the unit. The ability to demonstrate learning, with confidence, in a food and beverage operation, is an important feature of this unit.


  • Learning outcomes

On successful completion of this unit a learner will:

1 Understand different food and beverage production and service systems 2 Understand the financial controls used in food and beverage operations

  • Be able to devise menus for hospitality events
  • Be able to provide food and beverage services for hospitality events.


Unit content

  • Understand different food and beverage production and service systems

Food production: systems eg traditional, batch cooking, call-order, centralised, assembly kitchens, sous-vide, cook-chill, cook-freeze

Service: systems eg table service, counter service, à la carte, table d’hôte, silver service, family service, plate service, guéridon service, specialist food service systems

Recipe and menu factors: recipe suitability and modification; customer perceptions; choice of products; flavour and appearance of dishes; nutritional value

Cost implications: system costs; equipment; staff; products

Staffing implications: system skills and de-skilling; job specifications; training; levels of output

Application: within the hospitality industries eg hotels, restaurants, pubs, clubs and nightclubs, contract food services, hospitality services, membership clubs, events and specialist operations, banqueting, fast food, in-flight catering

  • Understand the financial processes used in food and beverage operations

Financial statements: dish costing sheets; cost statements; operating statements; variance analysis; sales records

Costs and pricing: dishes; menus; beverage lists; sales mix; net and gross profit; fixed, variable, direct, indirect cost; cost elements; VAT; discounting

Purchasing process: requisition of equipment and supplies; purchasing options; purchase specifications; receipt; invoicing; storage of equipment and supplies

  • Be able to devise menus for hospitality events

Menu and recipe considerations: cookery styles; types of menus; balance; dietary needs; allergy considerations; ethnic influences; social trends and fashions; nutritional content

Dish recipes: using fresh foods; prepared foods and levels of processing; combination of prepared and fresh foods; dish specifications; standard recipes

Factors affecting menu compilation and dish selection: taste; colour; texture; temperature; appearance; seasonal and local produce; complementary or contrasting foods; food and drink matching

Beverages: alcoholic; non-alcoholic; sources; selection; availability; storage; legislation


  • Be able to provide food and beverage services for hospitality events

Planning: type of menu; style of service; timescale; customer requirements

Cost control: staffing; materials; overheads; achieving target profits; budget restrictions

Quality standards: production and service planning; food and beverage preparation; cooking and presentation; food and beverage service levels; setting and maintaining standards

Health, safety and security of the working environment: procedures; monitoring; setting and maintaining hygiene practices

Evaluation factors: planning; organisation; management objectives; implementation; quality; customer satisfaction; cost effectiveness


Learning outcomes and assessment criteria

Learning outcomes Assessment criteria for pass  
On successful completion of The learner can:  
this unit a learner will:      
LO1 Understand different food 1.1 discuss the characteristics of food production and food  
and beverage production   and beverage service systems  
and service systems 1.2 discuss factors affecting recipes and menus for specific  
  1.3 compare the cost and staffing implications for different  
  1.4 justify the suitability of systems for particular food and  
    beverage outlets  
LO2 Understand the financial 2.1 discuss the use of financial statements in food and  
controls used in food and   beverage operations  
beverage operations 2.2 demonstrate the use of cost and pricing processes  
  2.3 analyse the purchasing process  
LO3 Be able to devise menus for 3.1 compile food and beverage menus for a hospitality  
hospitality events   event  
  3.2 justify the selection and suitability of recipes for menus  
LO4 Be able to provide food and 4.1 plan a food and beverage service for a hospitality event  
beverage services for   within an agreed budget  
hospitality events 4.2 implement the planned service maintaining standards of  
    quality and health, safety and security  
  4.3 evaluate factors to determine the success of the service,  
    making recommendations for improvement  




This unit has links with:

It also provides a basis for Unit 12: Hospitality Operations Management.

This unit links to the following Management NVQ units:

  • A1: Manage your own resources
  • A2: Manage your own resources and professional development
  • B8: Ensure compliance with legal, regulatory, ethical and social requirements
  • E1: Manage a budget
  • E2: Manage finance for your area of responsibility
  • E5: Ensure your own action reduce risks to health and safety
  • E6: Ensure health and safety requirements are met in your area of responsibility
  • E7: Ensure an effective organisational approach to health and safety
  • F1: Manage projects
  • F5: Resolve customer service problems
  • F6: Monitor and solve customer service problems
  • F11: Manage the achievement of customer satisfaction
  • F12: Improve organisational performance.

Essential requirements

Centres must have access to a variety of food and beverage production and service systems, including the specialist equipment necessary to illustrate operation. Access to suitable facilities for food and beverage operations is essential. This can be a realistic working environment within the centre or a suitable commercial business that learners can use to implement their plans.

Centres that have a catering store are advised to make use of this ‘real’ facility to demonstrate aspects of purchasing.

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